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(1)Mary Smith, et al., Revolution: Tomorrow Is NOW (National Organization for Women, 1973), p. 9. This publication is described on page 1 as "a summary of NOW's existing resolutions and policies by issue."

(2)Ibid., pp. 20-21. See also page 27 of the National Plan of Action (Washington, DC: International Women's Year Commission, 1977), adopted at the National Women's Conference, November 18-21, 1977, in Houston, Texas. "This publication states, This National Plan of Action constitutes the official recommendations of the National Women's Conference, pursuant to Public Law 94-167." For recent thoughtful essays on homosexuality and contemporary society see G. J. M. Aardweg, Homosexuality and Hope (Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Publications, 1985) and W. Dannemeyer, Shadow in the Land (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1989).

(3)See the extended discussion of the relationship between secular humanism and feminist thinking in Michael Braun and George Alan Rekers, The Christian in an Age of Sexual Eclipse: A Defense Without Apology (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1981), Chapter 2, "The Rhetoric of Revolt: The Sexual Propaganda of Humanism."

(4)See Humanist Manifestos One and Two (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1973). For example, Humanist Manifesto Two states, "We affirm that moral values derive their source from human experience. Ethics are autonomous and situational, needing no theological or ideological sanction. Ethics stem from human need and interest. . . . We strive for the good life, here and now" (p. 17); "We believe in maximal individual autonomy consonant with social responsibility. Although science can account for the causes of behavior, the possibilities of individual freedom of choice exist in human life and should be increased" (p. 18). See also David W. Ehrenfeld, The Arrogance of Humanism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).


(5)Humanist Manifesto Two, p. 18.

(6)A. Simon, "Promiscuity as Sex Difference," Psychological Reports 64: 802; D. M. Weisbrot, "The Politics of Sexuality in Adolescent Psychiatry," International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 2: 27-37.

(7)J. Money, Venuses Penuses (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1986).

(8)1978 Harris Poll and 1983 Gallup Poll. J. C. Pollock, et al., The Connecticut Mutual Life Report on American Values in the '80s.' The Impact of Belief (Hartford, CT: Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1981). See also G. A. Rekers, Counseling Families (Waco, TX: Word, 1988).

(9)University of California at Los Angeles, by a post-doctoral fellowship at Harvard University from the Foundations' Fund for Research in Psychiatry, and by United States Public Health Service research grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (grant numbers MH21803, MH28240, and MH29945), resulting in over sixty publications on gender identity disorder of childhood. The following publications are selected examples: G. A. Rekers, Pathological Sex-role Development in Boys: Behavior Treatment and Assessment (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms), No. 72-33, 978; G. A. Rekers, "Sexual Problems: Behavior Modification," in B. B. Wolman, ed., Handbook of Treatment of Mental Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978); G. A. Rekers, B. F. Crandall, A. C. Rosen, P. M. Bentler, "Genetic and Physical Studies of Male Children with Psychological Gender Disturbances," Psychological Medicine 9 (1979): 373-375; G. A. Rekers and S. L. Mead, "Early Intervention for Female Sexual Identity Disturbances," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 7 (1979); A. C. Rosen, G. A. Rekers, and S. L. Brigham, "Gender Stereotypy in Gender-dysphoric Young Boys," Psychological Reports 51 (1982): 371-374; G. A. Rekers, "The Family and Gender Identity Disorders," Journal of Family and Culture 2 (1986): 8-37; G. A. Rekers, "Cross-sex Behavior Problems," in R. A. Hoekelman, S. Blatman, S. B. Friedman, N. M. Nelson, and H. M. Seidel, eds., Primary Pediatric Care, 2nd edition (St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1990).


(10)George Alan Rekers, et al., "Child Gender Disturbances;" see also G. A. Rekers, "Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Gender Problems," in Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, ed. Benjamin B. Lahey and Alan E. Kazdin (New York: Plenum, 1977), volume 1, chapter 7. G. A. Rekers, "Therapies Dealing with the Child's Sexual Difficulties," in Jean-Marc Samson, ed., Enfrance et Sexualite/Childhood and Sexuality (Montreal and Paris: Les Editions Etudes Vivantes, Inc., 1990); G. A. Rekers, "Play Therapy with Cross-gender Identified Children," in C. E. Shaefer and K. J. O'Connor, eds., Handbook of Play Therapy (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1983), pp. 369-385; G. A. Rekers, "Gender Identity Problems," in P. H. Borstein and A. E. Kazdin, eds., Handbook of Clinical Behavior Therapy with Children (Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, 1985), pp. 658-699; G. A. Rekers, M. Kilgus, and A. C. Rosen, "Long-term Effects of Treatment for Childhood Gender Disturbances," Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality 3(2) (1990).

(11)G. A. Rekers, "Pathological Sex-role Development in Boys: Behavioral Treatment and Assessment" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1972).

(12)E. Bene and J. Anthony, "Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test: An Objective Technique for Exploring Emotional Attitudes in Children." Distributed by the National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales. Copyright 1957.

(13)P. M. Bentler, G. A. Rekers, and A. C. Rosen, "Congruence of Childhood Sex-role Identity and Behavior Disturbances," Child: Care, Health and Development 5(4) (1979): 267-284. G. A. Rekers, "Psychosexual Assessment of Gender Identity Disorders," in R. J. Prinz, ed., Advances in Behavioral Assessment of Children and Families, Volume 4 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc., 1988), pp. 33-71; G. A. Rekers and S. M. Morey, "Personality Problems Associated with Childhood Gender Disturbance," Italian Journal of Clinical Psychology (1990).


(14)J. E. Bates, P. M. Bentler, and S. Thompson, "Measurement of Deviant Gender Development in Boys," Child Development 44 (1973): 591-598.

(15)J. E. Bates and P. M. Bentler, "Play Activities of Normal and Effeminate Boys," Developmental Psychology 9 (1973): 20-27.

(16)G. A. Rekers and S. M. Morey, "The Relationship of Measures of Sex-typed Play with Clinician Ratings on Degree of Gender Disturbance," Journal of Clinical Psychology 46 (1990): 28-34.

(17)G. A. Rekers and S. M. Morey, "Sex-typed Body Movements as a Function of Severity of Gender Disturbance in Boys," Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality 2 (1989): 183-196.

(18)G. A. Rekers and S. M. Morey, "Relationship of Maternal Report of Feminine Behavior and Extraversion to the Severity of Gender Disturbance," Perceptual and Motor Skills 69 (1989): 387-394.

(19)G. A. Rekers, S. L. Mead, A. C. Rosen, and S. L. Brigham, "Family Correlates of Male Childhood Gender Disturbance," The Journal of Genetic Psychology 142 (1983): 31-42.

(20)U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstracts of the United States: 1978 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1978).

(21)S. L. Mead and G. A. Rekers, "The Role of the Father in Normal Psychosexual Development," Psychological Reports 45 (1979): 923-931; Rekers, et al., "Family Correlates." G. A. Rekers, "Parental Involvement with Agencies Serving Adolescents in Crisis: Adolescent Sexuality and Family Well-being," in hearings before the Subcommittee on Family and Human Services, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, on Parental Involvement with Their Adolescents in Crisis (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984).

(22)L. B. Apperson and W. G. McAdoo, "Parental Factors in the Childhood of Homosexuals," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 73 (1968): 201-206; Alan P. Bell and Martin S. Weinberg, Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978); A. P. Bell, M. S. Weinberg, and S. K. Hammersmith, Sexual Preference (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1981); E. Bene, "On the Genesis of Male Homosexuality: An Attempt at Clarifying the Role of the Parents," British Journal of Psychiatry 111 (1965): 803-813; Irving Bieber, et al., Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study (New York: Basic Books, 1926); R. E. Billingham and S. L. Hockenberry, "Gender Conformity, Masturbation Fantasy, Infatuation, and Sexual Orientation," Journal of Sex Research 23 (1987): 368-374; D. Boyer, "Male Prostitution and Homosexual Identity," Journal of Homosexuality 17 (1989): 151-184; D. G. Brown, "Homosexuality and Family Dynamics," Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 27 (1963): 227-232; J. A. Cates, "Adolescent Male Prostitution by Choice," Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 6 (1989): 151-156; R. B. Evans, "Childhood Parental Relationships of Homosexual Men," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 33 (1969): 129-135; R. Green, The "Sissy Boy Syndrome" and the Development of Homosexuality (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987); J. Harry, "Parental Physical Abuse and Sexual Orientation in Males," Archives of Sexual Behavior 18 (1989): 251-261; C. H. Jonas, "An Objective Approach to the Personality and Environment in Homosexuality," Psychiatric Quarterly 18 (1944): 626-641; G. A. Rekers, "The Formation of Homosexual Orientation," in P. F. Fagan, ed., Hope for Homosexuality (Washington, DC: Free Congress Foundation, 1988), pp. 1-27; G. A. Rekers, "AIDS: Behavioral Dimensions of Medical Care," USC School of Medicine Report 6 (1989): 7; Marcel T. Saghir and Eli Robins, Male and Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Investigation (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1973); S. F. Signer, "Homo-erotomania," British Journal of Psychiatry 154 (1989): 729; Charles M. Socarides, The Overt Homosexual (New York: Grune and Stratton, 1968); W. G. Stephan, "Parental Relationships and Early Social Experience of Activist Male Homosexuals and Male Heterosexuals," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 82 (1973): 506-513; E. D. Wilson, Counseling and Homosexuality (Waco, TX: Word, 1988); B. Zuger, "Homosexuality in Families of Boys with Early Effeminate Behavior," Archives of Sexual Behavior 18 (1989): 155-156.


(23)B. I. Fagot, "Sex Differences in Toddlers' Behavior and Parental Reaction," Developmental Psychology 10 (1974): 554-558; J. Z. Rubin, F. J. Provenzano, and Z. Luria, "The Eye of the Beholder: Parents' Views on the Sex of Newborns," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 44 (1974): 512-519.

(24)David B. Lynn, The Father: His Role in Child Development (Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1974); G. A. Rekers, "Father Absence: The Effects on Children's Development," in hearings before the Subcommittee on Family and Human Services, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, on Oversight on the Breakdown of the Traditional Family Unit (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983).

(25)L. Carlsmith, "Effect of Early Father-absence on Scholastic Aptitude," Harvard Educational Review 34 (1964): 3-21; Lois H. Stolz, et al., Father Relations of War-Born Children: The Effect of Post-War Adjustment of Fathers on the Behavior and Personality of First Children Born While Fathers Were At War (1954; reprint ed., Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1969).

(26)Stolz, et al., Father Relations of War-Born Children.

(27)G. R. Bach, "Father-fantasies and Father-typing in Father-separated Children," Child Development 17 (1946): 63-80; W. N. Stephens, "Judgment by Social Workers on Boys and Mothers in Fatherless Families," Journal of Genetic Psychology 99 (1961): 59-64.

(28)R. F. Winch, "The Relation Between the Loss of a Parent and Progress in Courtship," Journal of Social Psychology 29 (1949): 51-56.

(29)A. C. Rosen and J. Teague, "Case Studies in Development of Masculinity and Femininity in Male Children," Psychological Reports 34 (1974): 971-983.


(30)E. M. Hetherington, "Effects of Paternal Absence on Sex-typed Behaviors in Negro and White Preadolescent Males," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4 (1966): 87-91.

(31)H. B. Biller, "A Multiaspect Investigation of Masculine Development in Kindergarten Age Boys," Genetic Psychology Monographs 78 (1968): 89-138; C. T. Drake and D. McDugall, "Effects of the Absence of the Father and Other Male Models on the Development of Boys' Sex Roles," Developmental Psychology 13 (1977): 537-538.

(32)G. A. Rekers, "Research on the Essential Characteristics of the Father's Role for Family Strength," in hearings before the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families, United States House of Representatives on The Diversity and Strength of American Families (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986), pp. 55-69. G. P. Matthews, "Father-absence and the Development of Masculine Identification in Black Preschool Males," Dissertation Abstracts International 37, no. 3-A (1976): 1458; G. Sutton-Smith, B. G. Rosenberg, and F. Landy, "Father-absence Effects in Families of Different Sibling Compositions," Child Development 38 (1968): 1213-1221.

(33)J. W. Santrock, "Paternal Absence, Sex Typing, and Identification," Developmental Psychology 2 (1970): 264-272.

(34)Drake and McDugall, "Effects of the Absence of the Father."

(35)H. B. Biller and R. M. Baum, "Father-absence, Perceived Maternal Behavior, and Masculinity of School Boys," Developmental Psychology 4 (1971): 178-181; Matthews, "Father Absence and the Development of Masculine Identification."

(36)Santrock, "Paternal Absence"; Winch, "Loss of a Parent and Progress in Courtship."

(37)G. A. Rekers and S. L. Mead, "Female Sex-role Deviance," Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 8 (1980): 199-203.

(38)E. M. Hetherington, "Effects of Father-absence on Personality Development in Adolescent Daughters," Developmental Psychology 7 (1972): 313-326.

(39)H. B. Biller, "The Father and Personality Development: Paternal Deprivation and Sex-role Development," in The Role of the Father in Child Development, ed. Michael E. Lamb (New York: Wiley, 1976), pp. 89-156; Lamb, ed., The Role of the Father in Child Development; Lynn, The Father: His Role in Child Development; D. B. Lynn, "Fathers and Sex-role Development," Family Coordinator 25 (1976): 403-409; G. A. Rekers, et al., "Family Correlates of Male Childhood Gender Disturbance,"


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