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The Journal of Genetic Psychology 142 (1983): 31-42; S. L. Mead and G. A. Rekers, "The Role of the Father in Normal Psycho-sexual Development," Psychological Reports 45 (1979): 923-931; Rosen and Teague, "Case Studies in Development of Masculinity and Femininity."

(40)P. H. Mussen and E. Rutherford, "Parent-child Relation and Parental Personality in Relation to Young Children's Sex-role Preferences," Child Development 34 (1963): 589-607.

(41)E. M. Hetherington, "A Developmental Study of the Effects of Sex of the Dominant Parent on Sex-role Preference, Identification, and Imitation in Children," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2 (1965): 188-194; Lamb, Role of the Father in Child Development; P. H. Mussen and L. Distler, "Child Rearing Antecedents of Masculine Identification in Kindergarten Boys," Child Development 31 (1960): 89-100; D. E. Payne and P. H. Mussen, "Parent-child Relations and Father Identification Among Adolescent Boys," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 52 (1956): 358-362.

(42)Mussen and Distler, "Child Rearing Antecedents"; P. H. Mussen and L. Distler, "Masculinity, Identification, and Father-son Relationships," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 59 (1959): 350-356.

(43)S. Gray, "Perceived Similarity to Parents and Adjustment," Child Development 30 (1959): 91-107.

(44)M. Reis and D. Gold, "Relation of Paternal Availability to Problem Solving and Sex-role Orientation in Young Boys," Psychological Reports 40 (1977): 823-829.

(45)Biller, "The Father and Personality Development;" F. Earls, "The Fathers (not the mothers): Their Importance and Influence with Infants and Young Children," Psychiatry 39 (1976): 209-226.

(46)Hetherington, "Developmental Study of the Effects of Sex."


(48)L. W. Hoffman, "The Father's Role in the Family and the Child's Peer-group Adjustment," Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 7 (1961): 97-105.

(49). M. Greenstein, "Father Characteristics and Sex Typing," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3 (1966): 271-277.

(50)Lynn, The Father: His Role in Child Development.

(51)E. M. Hetherington and J. L. Deur, "The Effects of Father Absence on Child Development," Young Children 26 (1971): 233-248.

(52)Biller, "The Father and Personality Development;" Lamb, The Role of the Father in Child Development.

(53)L. W. Hoffman, "Changes in Family Roles, Socialization, and Sex Differences," American Psychologist 32 (1977): 644-657; G. A. Rekers, "Adolescent Development in American Culture," Contemporary Psychology 31 (1986): 122-123; G. A. Rekers, Counseling Families (Waco, TX: Word, 1988); G. A. Rekers and A. P. Jurich, "Development of Problems of Puberty and Sex-roles in Adolescence," in C. E. Walker and M. C. Roberts, eds., Handbook of Clinical Child Psychology (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1983), pp. 785-812.

(54)C. S. Chilman, "Some Major Issues Regarding Adolescent Sexuality and Childbearing in the United States," Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality 8 (1989): 3-25; C. S. Chilman, Adolescent Sexuality in a Changing American Society (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1983); A. Parrot, "Acquaintance Rape Among Adolescents," Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality 8 (1989): 47-61; A. C. Salter, Treating Child Sex Offenders and Victims (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1988); D. A. Schetky, "Child Pornography and Prostitution," in D. H. Schetky and A. H. Green, eds., Child Sexual Abuse (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1988); D. H. Schetky and A. H. Green, eds., Child Sexual Abuse (New York: Brunner/Mazel).

(55)P. Allen-Meares, "Adolescent Sexuality and Premature Parenthood: Role of the Black Church in Prevention," Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality 8 (1989): 133-142; J. McDowell and D. Day, Why Wait? (San Bernardino, CA: Here's Life, 1987); J. McDowell, How to Help Your Child Say "No" to Sexual Pressure (Waco, TX: Word, 1987).

(56)A. W. Burgess and M. L. Clark, Child Pornography and Sex Rings (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1984); E. Coleman, "The Development of Male Prostitution Activity Among Gay and Bisexual Adolescents," Journal of Homosexuality 17 (1989): 131-139; C. A. Gidycz and M. P. Koss, "The Impact of Adolescent Sexual Victimization," Violence and Victims 4 (1989): 139-149; D. B. Goldston, D. C. Turnquist, and J. F. Knutson, "Presenting Problems of Sexually Abused Girls Receiving Psychiatric Services," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98 (1989): 314-317; M. Hancock and K. B. Mains, Child Sexual Abuse (Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw Publishers, 1987); J. J. Haugaard and N. D. Repucci, The Sexual Abuse of Children (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988); G. E. Wyatt and G. J. Powell, Lasting Effects of Child Sexual Abuse (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1989).

(57)G. A. Rekers, Counseling Families (Waco, TX: Word, 1988); G. A. Rekers, "Developmental and Cultural Counters for Disorders in Adolescence," Contemporary Psychology 30 (1985): 813-814.

(58)There are also gender-linked differences in abilities and in physical and psychological traits that are not discussed here in length (see Chapter 16 of this volume). The most obvious biological differences are that gestation, lactation, and menstruation occur in females only, and sperm production in the male only. Numerous research studies have also found that males, as a group, tend to score higher in measures of physical strength and fleetness (related to sex differences in muscles), certain mathematical skills, visual-spatial skills, and gross-muscle movements. On the other hand, females tend to score higher, as a group, in measures of certain verbal skills, resistance to certain illnesses and disease, tactile sensitivity, and fine-muscle movements involved in manual dexterity. In psychological traits, boys as a group are more aggressive, on average, than girls, and boys are more active in boisterous play than girls. On the other hand, girls score higher, as a group, on measures of nurturance, sociability, and empathy. The research studies demonstrating these sex differences are reviewed by several recent reports, including J. H. Block, Sex-role Identity and Ego Development (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984); J. Brooks-Gunn and A. C. Petersen, eds., Girls at Puberty: Biological and Psychosocial Perspectives (New York: Plenum Press, 1983); D. B. Carter, ed., Current Conceptions of Sex Roles and Sex Typing: Theory and Research (New York: Praeger, 1987); C. Hutt, "Biological Bases of Psychological Sex Differences," American Journal of Diseases in Childhood 132 (1978): 170-177; R. M. Lerner and T. T. Roch, eds., Biological-Psychosocial Interactions in Early Adolescence (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986); L. B. Lueptow, Adolescent Sex Roles and Social Change (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984); Eleanor E. Maccoby and Carol N. Jacklin, The Psychology of Sex Differences (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1974); Diane McGuinness and Karl H. Pribram, "The Origins of Sensory Bias in the Development of Gender Differences in Perception and Cognition," in Cognitive Growth and Development---Essays in Honor of Herbert G. Birch, ed. Morton Bortner (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978).

(59)Compare the theological truths in Genesis 1:27-28; 3:16; Exodus 20:14; 21:22-25; Psalm 22:9-10; Philippians 2:3-4; Titus 2:3-5; and 1 Timothy 5:14. The feminine responsibility for protecting and preserving the life of the unborn child is discussed in more detail by Clifford E. Bajema, Abortion and the Meaning of Personhood (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1974); Braun and Rekers, The Christian in an Age of Sexual Eclipse; Harold O. J. Brown, Death Before Birth (New York: Thomas Nelson, 1977); Francis A. Schaeffer and C. Everett Koop, Whatever Happened to the Human Race? (Old Tappan, NJ: Revell, 1979). See also the article by Harold O. J. Brown, "Abortion and Child Abuse," Christianity Today, October 7, 1977, p. 34.

(60)G. A. Rekers, J. A. Sanders, and C. C. Strauss, "Developmental Differentiation of Adolescent Body Gestures," Journal of Genetic Psychology 138 (1981): 123-131.

(61)G. A. Rekers, J. A. Sanders, W. C. Rasbury, C. C. Strauss, and S. M. Morey, "Differentiation of Adolescent Activity Participation," Journal of Genetic Psychology 150 (1989): 323-335; Ray Raphael, The Men from the Boys: Rites of Passage in Male America (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1988).

(62)See Braun and Rekers, The Christian in an Age of Sexual Eclipse, chapter 2, "The Rhetoric of Revolt: The Sexual Propaganda of Humanism," and chapter 3, "Drawing the Battle Lines: The Radical Challenge of Sexual Extremists."

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