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Раздел 2


Упражнения


2.1. Герундий (Gerund)

§ 6–16, с. 23–42


Упражнение 1


Образуйте перфектный герундий от следующих глаголов.

Reflect Buy

Build Cook

Ask Perform

Translate Send

Fulfil Make


Упражнение
2


Образуйте пассивный герундий от следующих глаголов.

Invite Exhibit

Achieve Tell

Write Design

Demonstrate Prove

Find Give


Упражнение
3


Дайте название форм герундия и объясните, какое действие они обозначают.

Having decided Being invented

Having been solved Changing

Having done Being received

Having been equipped Washing

Being spent Having offered


Упражнение
4


Запомните слова и словосочетания, после которых употребляется герундий, и переведите предложения с ними.

1. to feel like
(doing) – хочется (сделать)

don
t feel like (doing) – не хочется (делать), нет настроения (делать)

а. 1. Do you feel like having a bite (перекусить)?

2. He doesn't feel like going there.

3. Do you feel like playing chess?

4. I don't feel like eating ice-cream today.

5. We didn't feel like working in such hot weather.

6. She doesn't feel like doing her homework.

б. 1. У меня сегодня нет желания идти на реку.

2. У нее было желание наказать ребенка.

3. Вы настроены прогуляться?

4. Как Вы относитесь к тому, чтобы выпить чашку кофе?

2. to prevent somebody from (doing) – мешать, препятствовать, не давать (делать)

1. What prevented you from coming in time?

2. A sudden illness prevented him from joining our traveling party.

3. His poor knowledge of English prevented him from reading the letter.

4. Urgent (срочный) work prevented him from going to the sea-side in the summer.

5. Friends prevent him from feeling lonely.

3. to keep somebody from (doing) воздерживаться от (выполнения), удерживать кого-л. от (выполнения)

1. Nothing would keep him from writing poems.

2. Fame and money didn't keep him from being dissatisfied.

3. His close friend knew how to keep him from worrying.

4. Don’t keep me from telling him the truth about his daughter.

4. to keep on (doing) продолжать (делать), по-прежнему (делать)

1. Mary kept on visiting him.

2. The editor kept on praising his verses.

3. He kept on telling her that he admired her brilliant acting.

4. The published notes encouraged him and he kept on writing.

5. to be excused from (doing) быть освобожденным от (выполнения)

1. He was excused from writing a test.

2. He was excused from going on an excursion.

3. They were excused from attending lectures.


4. He was excused from writing on the blackboard.

6. to look forward to (doing) – с нетерпением ожидать (выполнения)

1. I am looking forward to seeing him again.

2. We are looking forward to speaking with her.

3. We are looking forward to getting a letter from him.

4. We are looking forward to his returning from a long journey.


Упражнение 5


Запомните слова и словосочетания, после которых употребляется герундий.

1. to be worth (doing) – стоит (сделать); стоит того, чтобы (сделать)

а. Переведите предложения.

1. The book is worth reading.

2. The film is worth seeing.

3. This place is worth visiting once more.

4. This man is worth speaking to.

5. This girl is worth getting acquainted with.

6. This subject isn't worth discussing.

7. The museum is world-famous and certainly worth visiting.

8. Don't let them buy this TV-set. It isn't the latest model and the sum isn't worth spending.

б. Закончите предложения.

1. Don’t argue about it. It is not worth …

2. Don’t mention these facts. They are not worth …

3. Don’t speak with the man. He isn’t worth …

4. Don’t speak about the man. He isn’t worth …

5. Don’t discuss the review. It isn’t worth …

в. Скажите по-английски.

1. Пьесу стоит посмотреть.

2. Он не стоит того, чтобы о нём упоминали.

3. Вопрос не стоит того, чтобы его обсуждали.

4. Этот фильм не стоит смотреть.


5. Это событие стоит обсудить.

6. Эту песню стоит послушать.

2. It’s no good /use (doing) – бесполезно, нет смысла (делать)

1. It’s no use doing the room now, there is only half an hour left. Let’s do it properly after classes.

2. It’s no use waiting for John, he probably has gone already.

3. It’s no use inviting him to the party. He always refuses.

4. It’s no use asking her to do it. She is always short of time.

5. It’s no good trying to get the tickets, they’ve been sold out.

6. It will be no use phoning him. He’s never at home before 8 o’clock.

7. It is no use asking him for help.

8. It’s no use telling me your telephone number, I always forget
numbers.

9. It’s no use speaking to this man, he is a foreigner and he doesn’t understand your words.


Упражнение 6


Запомните слова и словосочетания, после которых употребляется герундий, и переведите предложения с ними.

1. It is/was + существительное + герундий – перевод зависит от значения существительного:

It was a surprise seeing him again! Было удивительно увидеть его снова!

It is a pleasure talking to her  Так приятно разговаривать
с ней!

Переведите предложения.

1. It was quite a surprise finding him at home. I thought he was still in Moscow.

2. It was quite a pleasure listening to Jane. I never knew she could sing with so much charm!

3. Today’s circus program was fairly good. It was fun watching the clowns.


4. It was such fun playing volley-ball on the beach!

2. cant / couldnt help (doing) – не могу (не сделать) / не мог (не сде-
лать)

I couldn’t help feeling bored. The play was extremely dull.

Я не мог не скучать. Пьеса была чрезвычайно скучной.

I couldn’t help admiring the architecture of this town.

Я не мог не восхищаться архитектурой города.

Переведите предложения.

1. I can not help worrying. I haven’t heard from him for a fortnight.

2. What expensive shoes! But I couldn’t help buying them and I don’t regret it!

3. I couldn’t help laughing when I saw Mary’s husband. He is much shorter than Mary.

4. I can not help thinking she must be unhappy. She looks so sad!

5. I can’t help staying up late. I’m up to my ears in work.

Упражнение 7


Запомните слова и словосочетания, после которых употребляется герундий, и переведите предложения с ними.

1. Forgive me for (doing)

Excuse me for (doing) простите меня за (то, что сделал что-л.)

Excuse my (doing)

Переведите предложения.


1. Excuse me for disturbing you (Excuse my disturbing you).

2. Forgive me for troubling you.

3. Excuse my coming so late. (Excuse me for coming so late). It’s not my fault.

4. Excuse my saying so (Excuse me for saying so), but I can’t understand your wanting to give up athletics.

2. to be + (прилагательное, наречие, причастие II) + герундий – перевод зависит от значения прилагательного, наречия, причастия II.

Например:

to be afraid of (doing) бояться (сделать что-л.)

to be clever at (doing) хорошо (делать что-л.)

to be tired of (doing) устать (делать что-л.)

Переведите предложения.

1. I never go mushrooming. I’m afraid of going to the woods alone.

2. Lucy is very clever at cooking. This fish dish is wonderful!

3. There were too many people in the library. I was tired of waiting.

4. I came in taxi because I was afraid of your leaving without me.

5. Mary is going to make the dress herself. She is clever at sewing.

6. The doctor told me to lie quietly but I’m so tired of lying on my
back.


Упражнение 8


Переведите предложения, в которых герундию предшествует глагол с предлогом или прилагательное с предлогом (§ 14.3, с. 37).

1. I’m afraid my parents will object to my traveling all by myself.

2. John is in hospital. He must insist on being operated on by professor
Norton.

3. My parents don’t approve of my staying with you for a few more days.

4. I think we can rely on Nick’s doing well at the exams.


5. Lucy is ungrateful because she never thanked me for helping her.

6. Michael succeeded in breaking the record in last competitions.

7. I can’t rely on his doing the work properly.

8. We disapprove of the children being left alone.

9. Jones insisted on being sent to the conference instead of me.

10. They cannot think of putting their wedding off till summer.

11. Many thanks for lending me your camera.


Упражнение 9


Переведите предложения на русский язык. Дайте, где возможно, по два варианта перевода герундия с предлогами.


  1. On arriving in Moscow Victor wrote a letter to his parents.

  2. We know several ways of solving this problem.

  3. After learning the simple relationship (отношение, взаимосвязь) between units of mass and length, we can use this system easily.

  4. By using this device (прибор) we are able to make many kinds of experiments.

  5. A comparatively (сравнительно) simple act of driving a car requires a vast number of scientific principles.

  6. Many solids can be changed to gases by heating.

  7. Ancient people lived for ages on the earth without knowing anything about electricity.

  8. The moon keeps moving around the earth without slowing down considerably.

  9. Before discussing the method it is necessary to get some additional information.

  10. We can improve the device by making it lighter.

  11. On coming home he rang her up.

  12. In passing from the solid (твердый) to the liquid state water becomes reduced in volume.

  13. They worked very hard with a view to completing the experiments in
    time.

  14. Besides being very complex this procedure is very costly.

  15. On pressing the button you will get information desired.
  16. This device should be put into operation without stopping the experiment.


  17. He went home instead of attending a lecture on history.

  18. He rang me up before coming to see me.

  19. On being told the news she gave a gasp of surprise.

  20. We let the boy in (let in – впустить) despite not knowing him.

Упражнение 10


Обратите внимание на сложные формы герундия в герундиальном обороте. Переведите предложения с ним.

1. We know of а) his entering the University.

б) his having entered the University.

в) their having been admitted to the University.

2. We don’t object to a) our son’s taking a French language course.

б) their being informed about your arrival.

3. I like the idea of a) his visiting us in summer.

б) this job being offered to him.

4. Do you mind a) my coming to see you?

б) our inviting Bill to the party?

в) the work being completed tomorrow?

5. I was surprised at a) his having refused to help me.

б) his having been appointed to this post.


Упражнение 11


Проанализируйте словосочетания. В каких словосочетаниях инговая форма является герундием? Переведите на русский язык:

а. 1. a sleeping car 5. a boiling temperature

a sleeping dog boiling milk

2. а freezing point 6. a driving license

а freezing river a driving wheel

3. playing cards 7. a walking stick

playing children a walking excavator

4. a waiting room 8. parting people

waiting people parting speech

б. a cooling effect, a looking glass, visiting hours, the rising sun, a working area, working people, a hunting season, laughing gas, a swimming pool.


Упражнение 12

Закончите предложения, используя соответствующие формы герундия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


Например: – He was late. He said: «Excuse…»

He said, «Excuse my being late».


  1. He will take a postgraduate course. I approve of …

  2. He was rude to the girl. He should apologize for …

  3. It is no longer hard for me to get up early. I got used to …

  4. She doesn’t study French any longer. She gave up …

  5. I don’t want to argue with them. I’m against …

  6. He left unexpectedly and didn’t say good-bye. He left without …

  7. She got an excellent mark. You should congratulate her on …

  8. Ann’s mother is a doctor. Ann too dreams of …

  9. He wants to spend the evening at home. I like his idea of …

  10. He devoted too much time to this problem. It’s useless …

  11. They wasted much time in debates. It’s no good …

  12. The man came so early. We were surprised at …

  13. My brother has won the chess championship. I am proud of …

  14. Her sons are good specialists. She is proud of …

    Упражнение 13


а. Укажите, какие предложения во 2-й колонке являются переводом предложений из 1-й колонки. Проанализируйте формы герундия.

  1. Я надеюсь на то, что ты a) I rely on your having done
    выполнишь работу в срок. the work in time.

  2. Я надеюсь на то, что работа б) I rely on the work being done
    будет выполнена в срок. in time.

  3. Я полагаюсь на то, что ты в) I rely on the work having been
    выполнил работу в срок. done in time.

  4. Я полагаюсь на то, что работу г) I rely on your doing the work
    выполнили в срок. in time.

б. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя герундий или герундиальный оборот.

1. Я удивлен, что а) тебе сообщили об этом факте.


(I’m surprised at …) б) ты сообщил мне об этом факте.

в) мне сообщили об этом факте.

г) им сообщили об этом факте.

д) им сообщат об этом факте.

2. Мы гордимся, что а) вас наградили орденом.

(We are proud of …) б) его наградят орденом.

в) нас наградят орденом.

г) нас наградили орденом.

3. Я благодарен за то, что а) он помог мне.

(I’m grateful for …) б) он помогает мне.

в) мне помогают.

г) мне помогли.

Упражнение 14


а. Переведите предложения, обратите внимание на употребление герундия после предлогов (§ 14, с. 35–38).


  1. We approve of these steps having been taken at once.

  2. Nick is not against being sent to Japan.

  3. Nick is against our being sent to Japan.

  4. He was displeased at the text not having been recorded.

  5. We are for his staying with his relatives for the summer vacation.

  6. She dreams of her son becoming a doctor.

  7. I am surprised at her not having received an invitation card.

  8. I am afraid of her being fined for breaking the traffic rules.

  9. I am sure of his winning the game.

  10. He is proud of being written about in newspapers.

  11. He disapproves of my helping them.

  12. George apologized for being late.

б. Составьте свои предложения с выделенными выражениями.


Упражнение 15


По предложенной модели измените предложения с герундием на предложения с герундиальным оборотом. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Например: – The teacher relied on doing the work in time.


The teacher relied on the work being done in time.

1. When a small boy, he liked being taken out hunting by his father.

2. She never denied having sent the letter.

3. We object to applying this method into practice.

4. Father hates being interrupted by anyone of us.

5. We don’t mind referring to these facts.

6. She never referred to having been assisted by anybody.

7. Can you recall having mentioned the fact to anyone?

8. There is no hope of shipping the goods tomorrow.

9. He gave me a good idea of using this material for my article.

10. There is some hope of saving his life.

11. She insisted on doing the work in time.

12. There is a possibility of sending him to Kiev.

13. The ship left the port without taking sufficient coal on board.

14. The buyers insisted on packing the goods in double bags.

15. We were all surprised at not yet having put the project into practice.

Упражнение 16


Соедините два предложения в одно, используя герундий или герундиальный оборот. Выделенные глаголы и словосочетания сделайте сказуемыми, добавьте, где нужно, предлоги. Переведите предложения.

Например: Michael will become a physicist. He has been dreaming of it for a long time.

– Michael has been dreaming of becoming a physicist for a long time.

1. She was very much disappointed. She had not received any letters.

2. We kept child from crying. We told him funny stories.

3. He decided not to go there. He gave up the idea completely.

4. She sang out of tune. It annoyed me immensely.

5. He talked about food. It made him feel hungry.


6. He made everything clear to me. He explained every detail.

7. She has quite a gift. She makes complicated things clear and simple.

8. My friend has a very irritating habit. He hums some tune all the time.

9. He has been operated on. He feels much better.

10. Roger was not admitted to college. We were surprised at it.

11. Jane attends classes in history. We approve of it.

12. Helen got the prize. We are proud of it.

13. John is very suspicious. I am surprised at it.

14. I’ll attend classes in photography. My brother insists on it.

15. Jane won’t marry Jim. Her mother is against it.

16. Helen is studying physics. I approve of it.

17. George wants to study law. His father is against it.

18. He had to work in the laboratory. He got used to it.

19. You may take the dictionary. I don’t mind it.

20. He interfered with our experiment. He apologized for it.


Упражнение 17


Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя герундий или герундиальный оборот.

1. Я не против, если Вы останетесь здесь.

2. Я боюсь, что Анна опоздает (miss) на поезд.

3. Я боюсь, что Анна опоздала на поезд.

4. Я боюсь, что Джек заблудится (lose his way).

5. Я боюсь, что Джек заблудился.

6. Наши друзья возражали против того, что мы уходим (leave) так скоро.

7. Я не помню, чтобы ты обещал навестить его.

8. Извините, что мы называем Вас по имени.

9. Наш учитель не любит, когда мы опаздываем на занятие.

10. Он извинился за то, что был груб (rude) с ней.

11. Я сердит на то, что ты берёшь мои книги.

12. Я сердит на то, что ты взял мои книги.


13. Я сердит на то, что мои книги кто-то взял.

14. Мне не очень хочется (don’t feel like) идти домой так рано.

15. Ему не хотелось ссориться (quarrel), и он перестал спорить (argue).

16. Он не отрицал (deny), что часто ходил туда с Анной.

17. Майкл бросил (give up) курить.

18. Мы с нетерпением ждём, когда пойдём на концерт.

19. Я с нетерпением жду встречи с моим другом.

20. Перестаньте разговаривать. Вам следует извиниться за то, что прерываете (interrupt) докладчика.


Упражнение 18


Переведите предложения с герундиальным оборотом.

1. We learned about the consumption (потребление) of crude oil and natural gas having increased sharply.

2. The lecturer told us about estimates of total energy resources being still rather approximate (приблизительный).

3. The guests were told about the plant in Irkutsk being already in operation.

4. We know of semiconductors (полупроводники) having been classified into three groups.

5. Our professor told us about plenary meeting of the 7th World Energy Conference having been held in Moscow.

6. We know of our scientists having achieved great successes in the development of power stations.

7. Many reporters mentioned new machine-building plants having been constructed in that district.

8. We know of minerals being cleaned before usage.

9. His being sent to work to Minsk was adopted unanimously (единогласно).

10. Their having finished the work ahead of schedule was reported in «Izvestia».

11. Everybody was surprised at the time-table having been changed.

12. We don’t like her being laughed at.

13. I am surprised at Victor’s having an appointment with the doctor at such a late hour.

14. We know of his having graduated from Moscow University.


15. After his having constructed many balloons, Tsiolkovsky began to think of them as a means of transport.

16. We know of man’s having learned to use wood, stone and metal in prehistoric times.

17. Everybody agreed upon this method being the best one.

18. We heard of alchemists having made many important discoveries.

19. This failure was due to the designer’s having being careless.

20. We could solve this problem in case of your giving us all the necessary information.

21. His being able to make more discoveries was taken for granted (take for granted – считать само собой разумеющимся).


Упражнение 19

Переведите предложения с герундием в разных функциях и после раз­личных предлогов.


  1. Trying to avoid conflicts with anyone is one of the most important things.

  2. Would you mind repeating the telephone number?

  3. I tried dialing the call myself, but could not get a good connection.

  4. Being on the job requires interacting constantly with co-workers.

  5. Would you mind glancing at this letter and telling me what it is all about.

  6. The girl maintained a silent hostility and avoided looking at me.

  7. On departure English people tend to shake hands less than on arrival. In business, shaking hands on arrival and departure is more common but not obligatory.

  8. Only one thing worth mentioning happened as the line of men passed by the table.

  9. Keeping you cool makes life easier but may not solve all your problems, it also should keep things from getting out of hand.

  10. I kept up with new developments by borrowing books from the library and by subscribing to various technical journals and magazines.

  11. Sheila has been criticized for placing too much emphasis on being properly dressed.

  12. On learning that I had a science degree and varied experience in engineering, the officer expressed the opinion that I would have no difficulty in finding a good civilian job.


  13. I was nervous as I stood in front of the Head office; this firm had a high international reputation and the thought of being associated with it added to my excitement.

  14. These devices have the advantage of being cheap.

  15. In taking revenge a man is but equal to his enemy, but in passing it over he is his superior. (Francis Bacon).

  16. Do you know that the woodcock is the only bird that can sing without using its throat. It sings by vibrating its feathers.

  17. Do you know, that the eyeballs of the giraffe protrude to such an extent that he can see in all directions without turning his head.

  18. Do you know that water is useless in putting out some kinds of fires – a fire of burning oil, for example. Sand in this case is much more useful than water.


Упражнение 20


Переведите предложения с герундием в разных функциях и после различных предлогов.

  1. Megan said, «I was extremely fond of Betly but my fondness didn’t blind me from seeing exactly the kind of silly little fool she was and even telling her so upon occasions.»

  2. It may have been my fancy but it seemed to me that she hesitated a second before answering.

  3. Information, for which I ask, you can give freely without wondering whether or no it will hurt anyone.

  4. Betly was killed by a homicidial murderer. Only by speaking the exact truth can you help us to get on his track.

  5. It isn’t time for considering one’s own feelings or anyone else’s.

  6. I need hardly say that one of my first actions on reaching England was to look up my old friend, Hercule Poirot.
  7. I accused him (and he admitted the fact) of having chosen this particular building entirely on account of its strictly geometrical appearance and proportions.


  8. I would not for the world have hurt Poirot’s feelings by saying so.

  9. I turned this over in my mind without quite seeing the point.

  10. «Mr. Hercule Poirot, You fancy yourself, don’t you, at solving mysteries that are too difficult for our poor thick-headed British police?»

  11. After being searched by the police it (the room) had been left as it was.

  12. We had two more interviews before returning to London.

  13. Mr. Parridge looked a little annoyed at being interrupted.

  14. She had a drunken husband who was in the habit of threatening her life.

  15. You see, after the row a year ago she’d got into the habit of telling a few useful lies on the principle that what the mind doesn’t know the heart doesn’t grieve over.


Упражнение 21


Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя нужные формы герундия.

  1. Он привык (got used to) называть его дедушкой.

  2. Он привык, что его называют дедушкой.

  3. Я против (am against) того, чтобы выступать (чтобы я выступал) на собрании.

  4. Я против того, чтобы Билл выступал на собрании.

  5. Я против того, чтобы этот вопрос обсуждался на собрании.

  6. Майкл мечтает (dreams of) учиться в университете.

  7. Она мечтает, чтобы ее сын учился в университете.

  8. Он не одобряет (disapproves of), что его сын читает книги только современных писателей.

  9. Они гордятся (are proud of) тем, что учатся в университете.

  10. Мы гордимся, что они учатся в университете.

  11. Мои родители гордятся, что я выиграл эту игру.

  12. Я горжусь тем, что меня наградили за хорошую учебу.

  13. Он удивлен, что его не пригласили на встречу.

  14. Я устал от того, что мне напоминают (remind) об этом.
  15. Она мечтает, чтобы ее пригласили на вечер.


  16. Джейн любит читать детективные романы.

  17. Джейн любит, когда ей читают.

  18. Он должен гордиться тем, что у него такой друг.


Упражнение 22


Скажите по-английски (§ 16, с. 40).

  1. Мы остановились, чтобы послушать новости.

  2. Нам нужно покрасить эти стены.

  3. Уходя из дому, мы вспомнили (не забыли), что нужно выключить свет.

  4. «Перестань перебивать (interrupt) меня», – сказал отец.

  5. Цветы необходимо поливать регулярно.

  6. Дети остановились, чтобы понаблюдать за птицами на деревьях.

  7. Этот памятник необходимо отреставрировать.

  8. Я не помню, чтобы мы отвечали на это письмо.

  9. Спортсменам нужно тренироваться по 4–5 часов в день.

  10. Ребёнок перестал плакать и взял игрушку.

  11. Эту работу нужно сделать сразу же (at once).

  12. Я предпочитаю ходить в кинотеатр, а не смотреть видео дома.

  13. Я помню, что встречался с твоим братом раньше.

  14. Я предпочитаю остаться дома сегодня, а не ходить по магазинам в такую плохую погоду.



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