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Peirsec’s Europe, 17.


626 See Chapter 4.

627 Gassendi, Life of Copernicus, Trans. Thill, 328.

628 Howard Jones, Pierre Gassendi’s Institutio Logica 1658, xxix.

629 Lisa Sarasohn, Gassendi’s Ethics, 209-211.

630 Howard Jones, Pierre Gassendi’s Institutio Logica, xxviii-xxix.

631 Brundell, Pierre Gassendi, 3.

632 Ibid., 3.

633 This was translated by Howard Jones into English in 1981.

634 Hermann Usener, Epicurea,.ed. and trans. [Italian] Giovanni Reale (Milan: Bompiani, 2002). This edition has Usener’s original pages in Greek and Latin, with facing pages in Italian translation by Reale.

635 Norman DeWitt, Epicurus and his philosophy (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1954), 11.

636 Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, trans. and ed. R. D. Hicks, Vol. II (Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Reprint 2000).

637 I believe that the most reliable of Epicurus’ own writings are his Letters to Herodotus, Pythocles, and Menoeceus. I say this based upon the few variations of these letters found in Usener. The Principal Sayings and other isolated sayings are, I believe less reliably traced directly to Epicurus. As described below, there are many variations of these found in antiquity, especially the first (and arguably most important) Principal Doctrine. Also, as described below, Philodemus felt the need in the first century BC to undertake a major editing of Epicurus’ works.

638 Epicurus, “Letter to Pythocles,” in The essential Epicurus: letters, principal doctrines, Vatican sayings, and fragments, trans. Eugene O'Connor (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993), 43.


639 Ibid., 44.

640 Ibid., “Vatican Sayings,” 80.

641 DeWitt, Epicurus and his philosophy, 98.

642 Ibid., “Letter to Colotes,” 94.

643 DeWitt, Epicurus and his philosophy, 332-334.

644 Ibid., 335.

645 Phillip De Lacy, “Contribution of the Herculanean Papyri to our Knowledge of Epicurean Logic,” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 68 (1937), 318-325.

646 Philodemus, On Frank Criticism, trans. David Konstan, Diskin Clay, Johan Thom and James Ware (Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1998), 1.


647 Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, trans. W. H. D. Rouse and Ferguson Smith (Cambridge: Loeb Classic Library, 1969), 5.

648 David Konstan, “Introduction,” in On Frank Criticism, 1.

649 Ibid., 57.

650 Lucretius, On the Nature of the Universe, 189.

651 Elizabeth Amis, “Epicurean Epistemology,” in Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, ed. Algra et al (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 261.

652 J. M. Rist, Epicurus, An Introduction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), 165. In this I agree with Rist as opposed to De Witt who left open the possibility of innate ideas within an Epicurean system.


653 Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, 215.

654 Ibid., 195.

655 Ibid., 197.

656 Ibid., 199.

657 Ibid., 223.

658 Ibid., 335.

659 Ibid., 225.

660 Ibid., 253.

661 Ibid., 257.

662 Ibid., 117.

663 Ibid., 115.

664 Epicurus, “Letter to Menoeceus,” The Essential Epicurus, 71.

665 Ibid., “Principal Doctrines,” 71.

666 Ibid., “Letter to Pythocles,” 44.

667 Ibid., 44.

668 Note that Karl Popper developed the same theory of science in the twentieth century. For Popper, a scientist can only disprove hypotheses, he cannot definitively prove anything.

669 Epicurus, “Letter to Pythocles,” The Essential Epicurus, 22.

670 Ibid., “Letter to Herodotus,” 23.

671 Ibid., 27.

672 Ibid., 23.

673 Epicurus, “Letter to Menoeceus,” The Essential Epicurus, 62.

674 Ibid., “Letter to Herodotus,” 25.

675 Ibid., “Fragments,” 98.

676 George Hadzsits, “Significance of Worship and Prayer among the Epicureans,” Transactions and Proceedings Of the American Philological Association 39 (1908): 319-320.


677 Epicurus, “The Principal Doctrines,” The Essential Epicurus, 69.

678 Ibid., “Letter to Menoeceus,” 62.

679 Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, 7.

680 Epicurus, “Fragments,” The Essential Epicurus, 98.

681 Ibid., “Letter to Herodotus,” 21.

682 Ibid., 21.

683 Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, 109.

684 Epicurus, “Fragments,” The essential Epicurus, 87.

685 Elizabeth Asmis, “Epicurean Poetics,” in Philodemus and Poetry, ed. Dirk Obbink (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 15.

686 Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, 79.

687 Epicurus, “Letter to Menoeceus,” The Essential Epicurus, 68.

688 Epicurus, “Letter to Menoeceus,” The Essential Epicurus, 61.

689 Ibid., “Vatican Sayings,” 83.

690 Philodemus, Frank Criticism, 53.

691 Epicurus, “Letter to Menoeceus,” The Essential Epicurus, 61.

692 Ibid., 63.

693 Ibid., 65.

694 Ibid., 66.

695 Ibid., 67.

696 Ibid., 66.

697 Tad Brennan, “Epicurus on Sex, Marriage, and Children,” Classical Philology 91 no. 4 (Oct 1996): 346-352.

698 Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Famous Philosophers Vol II, 645.


699 Epicurus, “Vatican Sayings,” The Essential Epicurus, 82.

700 Lucretius, On The Nature of Things, 365.

701 Ibid., 363.

702 Ibid., 363.

703 Epicurus, “Vatican Sayings,” The Essential Epicurus, 85.

704 Ibid., 84.

705 Ibid., 84.

706 Ibid., 81.

707 Ibid., 81.

708 Ibid., 84.

709 Ibid., 83.

710 Ibid., “Principal Doctrines,” 71.

711 Ibid., 74.

712 Ibid., 74.

713 Ibid., 75.

714 P. A. Vander Waerdt, “The Justice of the Epicurean Wise Man,” The Classical Quarterly, n.s. 37, no. 2 (1987): 419.

715 Epicurus, “Principal Doctrines,” The Essential Epicurus, 74.

716 Vander Waerdt, “The Justice of the Epicurean Wise Man” The Classical Quarterly, n.s. 37, no. 2 (1987): 409.

717 Epicurus, “Vatican Sayings,” The Essential Epicurus, 84.

718 Epicurus, “Vatican Sayings,” The Essential Epicurus, 84.

719 Abraham Malherbe, “Self-Definition Among Epicureans and Cynics,” in Jewish and Christian Self-Definition, Vol. III ed. E.P. Sanders (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982), 47.


720 Lucretius, On The Nature of Things, 189.

721 Ibid., 189.

722 Philodemus, Frank Criticism, 57.

723 Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, trans. H. Rackham (Cambridge: Loeb Classic Library, 1951), 392.

724 DeWitt, Epicurus and his philosophy, 100.

725 Bernard Frischer, The Sculpted Word: Epicureanism and Philosophical Recruitment in Ancient Greece, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982), 91.

726 Ibid., 93.

727 Ibid., 127.

728 Epicurus, “Principal Doctrines,” The Essential Epicurus, 73.

729 Normal De Witt, “Organization and Procedure in Epicurean Groups,” Classical Philology 31, no. 3 (Jul 1936): 205-211.

730 Philodemus, On Frank Criticism, 103.

731 Ibid., 55.

732 Epicurus, “Vatican Sayings,” The Essential Epicurus, 80.

733 Cicero, De Finibus, 137.

734 Ibid., 137.

735 Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Famous Philosophers, vol 2, 537.

736 Frischer, The Sculpted Word, 5.

737 Ibid., 5-6.

738 Gassendi,5: 199. “De Sanctis Patribus, ac nominatim Clemente, Lactantio, Ambrosio” Cf. Taussig I,227.


739 Richard Blackwell, Galileo, Bellarmine, and the Bible (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991).

740 W. Leonard Grant, “Neo-Latin Verse-Translations of the Bible,” Harvard Theological Review 52, no. 3. (Jul 1959): 209.

741 Gassendi, 1:163.

742 Ibid, 1:163. “…Fides Sacra praescribat, inxta caput primum Geneseos.”

743 Eric Osborn, “Clement of Alexandria,” in The First Christian Theologians, ed. G. R. Evans (Malden: Blackwell, 2004), 130.

744 Pierre Du Puy, Catalogus bibliothecae Thuanae a Petro & Jacobo Puteanis, (Paris: Parisiis, 1679).

745 Johannes Quasten, Patrology Vol II (Allen, Texas: Christian Classics, 1987), 19, for more discussion on the history of the manuscripts of Clements’ works.

746 Eric Osborn, “Clement of Alexandria,” The First Christian Theologians, ed. G. R. Evans (Malden, Blackwell, 2004), 130.

747 Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, ANF Vol. 2, 303.

748 Annewies van den Hoek “Techniques of Quotation in Clement of Alexandria,” Vigiliae Christianae 50: 223.

749 Elizabeth Digeser, The Making of a Christian Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press), 90-95.

750 Lactantius, Divine Institutes, Book III

751 Jerome, Letter LVIII to Paulinus of Nola, Tran. Freemantle, NPNF Series 2, Vol. 6, 122.

752 Charles Trinkaus, In Our Image and Likeness, Vol. 1 (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1995), 183.


753 Jackson Bryce, Bibliography of Lactantius, available at http://www.acad.carleton.edu/curricular/CLAS/lactantius/part_2.pdf accessed 20 December 2006.

754 For a description of the baptismal rites in Milan in the fourth century, see Macia Colish, Ambrose’s Patriarchs (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005), 16-17.

755 Jan den Boeft, “Erasmus and the Church Fathers,” The Reception of the Church Fathers in the West, Vol. 2 (Leiden: Brill, 2001), 559-565.

756 Johannes Quasten, Patrology, Vol. IV, 156.

757 Gassendi uses On Abraham Book 2 as a source of Epicurean tenets. He does not address the positive Aristotelian hylomorphic anthropology that Ambrose advocates here. See Colish, 33-34.

758 See for instance the debates between Luther and Erasmus.

759 Nicholas Jolley, “The relation between philosophy and theology,” in The Cambridge History of Seventeenth Century Philosophy, 371-377.

760 Gerard O’Daly, Augustine’s City of God (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 275.

761 Daniel-Odon Hurel, “The Benedictines of the Congregation of St. Maur and the Church Fathers,” The Reception of the Church Fathers in the West, Vol. 2, 1018.



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