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Заполните пропуски глаголом "to be" в соответствующей форме:

  1. My colleagues ... in Paris last month.

  2. Birmingham ... large industrial city in England.

  3. I ... glad that she ... here now.

  4. Do you see? These blocks of flats ... of modern design.

  5. My friend ... a good dancer when she ... young.

  6. We ... in the office yesterday.

  7. This ... the picture which 1 like best.

  8. Why ... you late?

  9. ... they hungry?

11. Заполните пропуски глаголом "to have (got)" в соответствующей форме:

  1. John ... many relatives.

  2. We ... a lot of work to do a week ago.

  3. You ... an interesting lecture yesterday.

  4. ... she any French journals?

  5. They ... a club sitting yesterday.

  6. The secretary ... an important meeting today.

  7. 1 ... a comfortable flat in this modern building.

  8. The flat is big. It ... four rooms.

  9. How many cousins ... you got?

  10. Who ... the latest report?

12. Употребите оборот "there+be" в следующих предложениях:

  1. Look! ... somebody near the bus-stop.

  2. ... few students at the lecture yesterday.

  3. ... many nice trees in the park. It is so beautiful!

  4. ... one window in this room.

  5. ... seven days in a week.

  6. ... a telephone here soon.

  7. ... a lot of beautiful places in our town.

  8. ... nothing in the bag.

  9. How many floors ... in this block of flats?

  10. How much tea ... in the glass a minute ago?

13. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present
Continuous Tense:

  1. Look. It (snow).
  2. She has no time to answer your questions now because she (translate) the article.

  3. My colleagues (discuss) the problem from 7 till 9 yesterday.

  4. He is ready and he (wait) for you.

  1. Don't you see? He (look) through the telegrams.

  2. She (walk) to her office because it is warm.

  3. What is she busy with? She (copy) a text.

  4. Listen! Lucy (play) a guitar.

  5. Who (speak) at the meeting now?

14. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Indefinite Tense:

  1. I (meet) my colleagues here very often.

  2. He seldom (come) there.

  3. They sometimes (visit) their grandparents.

  4. The students of our department (attend) lectures six days a week.

  5. We often invite guests to our place.

  6. I usually (drink) a cup of coffee in the morning.

  7. She (get) to her office by tram.

  8. It (rain) here rather seldom in early spring.

  9. Her husband (play) the piano very well.

10. From time to time she (try) to visit the museums.

15. Поставьте глаголы, заключённые в скобки, в Past Indefinite:

  1. Last year the competition (be held) in March.

  2. We (approve) the plan.

  3. We (pay) special attention to the scientific work of each student.

  4. The visitors (come) on time.

  5. We (pack) the luggage in an hour.

  6. The parents (send) for the doctor.

  7. A group of children (go) on a trip.

  8. We (buy) a few magazines at the book-stall.

  9. Last summer my friends (live) in the South.

  10. The man (look) at his watch.

16. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

  1. After my examinations 1 shall leave for the Caucasus.

  2. He will go abroad by air.
  3. My sister will stay in Moscow for a few days.

  4. The train will arrive in a minute.

  5. We shall walk about the city.

Переведите тексты письменно

Text № 1

Philip Blake is the eldest son in his family. He does not live with his parents. He has got a comfortable house in a small town near London. Philip is 30 years old, and he is not married. He works in London. He is a manager at a plant. Philip always goes to London on week-days. Sunday is his day off, that's why he does not go to his office on Sunday.

Philip is really a very busy man. His day begins rather early. As usual the alarm clock rings at six o'clock in the morning. He gets up, washes, dresses, has breakfast and leaves home. Philip has a car, so it takes him about thirty minutes to get to his work. At nine o'clock he is in his office. He looks through newspapers because he is interested in the latest political and business events. Then he is busy with the mail.

Philip usually has lunch in a cafe, but sometimes he stays at the plant and has lunch with his colleagues in the canteen. He leaves his office at about six o'clock in the evening. Sometimes he has a lot of work to do and works till seven o'clock. Three times a week Philip has French lessons. He learns the French lan­guage with pleasure. From time to time Philip goes to other cities to discuss business with the customers.

Text № 2 The English Cities

Stradford is a very interesting town, right in the centre of England. There are no mountains or deep valleys near Stradford, but there are a beautiful wood, green fields, a quiet river - the Avon, and lovely houses.

Stradford is a busy city, especially on market days. The first place we go to is Shakespeare's birthplace, a small house with small rooms in the centre of Stradford.

Then we go to the church where Shakespeare is buried. There is a bust of Shakespeare here. We also visit Anne Hathaway's Cottage, about a mile out of Stradford. Anne was Shakespeare's wife, and the cottage is just as it was in their time.

We have a look at the Shakespeare's Memorial Theatre. How nice it is to see a play here! They are doing "A Midsummer Night's Dream" this evening, but we have no tickets.

The city of Bristol, the capital of West Country, is a living text-book of En­gland's history. It was already important as early as the reign of Ethelred (978-1013). It had its own mint. Today it is one of the most prosperous centres of commerce and industry in modern England.

Here the river Avon flows into the mouth of the river Severn, and the city looks westword, the Atlantic Ocean.

City Docks, a very old part of the dock system, lie in the heart of the city itself. The port plays a very important role in the prosperity of Bristol.

Besides Bristol's diverse industries, shipbuilding and repairing, the city is famous for aircraft and aero-engines industry. Another large industrial group in­cludes production of fertilizers, chemicals, and paints.

Bristol is a city of wide cultural interests, and drama, ballet and music are very important here. Education is a strong feature, and in addition to the Univer­sity there are numerous schools of high standing.

The city is rich in lovely parks and open spaces.


Вариант № 2

/. Напишите первую форму следующих глаголов:

  • translated, opened, closed, married, thanked, lived, liked, walked, stayed, finished, belonged;

  • was, were, went, put, did, sang, had, said, spent, built, heard, held

2. Напишите вторую и третью формы следующих глаголов (Past Indefinite, Participle II):

  • receive, discuss, repeat, revise, copy, work, study, love, return, add, separate;

  • catch, lead, let, know, pay, speak, see, become, get, give, choose, begin

3. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

  1. I have met her before.

  2. The students have learned the new grammar rule.

  3. The engineer has finished his work.

  4. The boy has brought the dictionary.

  5. We've had a long walk today.

4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, отразив смысловое различие, внесённое глагольными формами. Определите время глагола в обоих предложениях:

  1. I shall be writing my report during the first week of May.

  2. By May 1 shall have written my report.

5. Поставьте глаголы, заключённые в скобки, в Past Indefinite или Present Perfect:

  1. I never (see) this painting.

  2. I (see) him yesterday, but I (not to see) him today.

  3. When he (come) to Moscow? He (come) the day before yesterday.

  4. The rain (stop). Let's go for a walk.

  5. 1 can't open the door; I (lose) the key.

6. Напишите следующие предложения в Past Indefinite u Future Indefinite:

  1. You must read this book by all means.

  2. The dean can speak to the students about it.

  3. She may go out.

7. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами или их эквивалентами:

  1. I ... not go to the stadium with them last night, I ... revise the gram­
    mar rules for the test.

  2. I live a long way from the Institute and 1 ... get up early.

  1. All of us ... be in time for classes.

  2. When we have our French lessons, we ... to stay at the office after

  3. He (not) ... stay at the office on Monday and Friday and ... get home early.

  4. ... you work hard to do well at the Institute?
  5. ... they discuss this problem right now? No, they ... do it next time.

  6. I'm glad you ... stay yesterday.

  7. ... have lunch with me tomorrow?

  8. Please send them this telegram. Oh, ... I do it now?

  9. The students ...go out now.

  10. He ... to earn extra money after work.

8. Поставьте предложения в прошедшем и будущем времени; укажите время и залог глагола:

  1. The students of our group are given a lot of homework to do every day.

  2. Many articles on our speciality are discussed in class.

  3. New modern blocks of flats are built very quickly.

  4. You are wanted on the phone.

  5. The grammar rules are revised at every lesson.

  6. He is given these foreign journals in the library.

  7. This film is much spoken about.

  8. The lectures of our professor are listened to with great interest.

  9. We are taught English at the Institute.

  10. The telegrams are sent early in the morning.

9. Поставьте глаголы, заключённые в скобки, в соответствующую форму страдательного залога:

  1. The letter (write) some days ago.

  2. This plant (reconstruct) last year.

  3. These cars (produce) by one of the plants in our city.

  4. All these cables (answer) tomorrow.

  5. While he was having lunch, a message (bring) to him.

  6. The problem (discuss) when the telephone rang.

  7. We soon became good friends, and very often when the work (to do)
    we went out together.

  8. The new desk (place) at the window, and he could see the street, trees and flower-beds.

  9. Progress in technology today (associate) with the peaceful use of atomic energy.

10. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям:
  1. Our students are offered a wide choice of work all over the country.

  2. Listen! An article about American college graduates is being broadcast.

  3. The lectures will be delivered in English.

  4. Our note-books are regularly looked through by the teacher.

11. Ответьте на следующие вопросы письменно:

  1. Are many new buildings being built in your city?

  2. Are they being built by builders or by future inhabitants?

  3. People are offered all modern conveniences in their new houses, aren't they?

Переведите тексты письменно

Text № 1 Cambridge

Cambridge is situated at a distance of 70 miles from London; the great part of the town lies on the left bank of the river Cam.

Cambridge is one of the most beautiful towns of England. It is not a mod­ern industrial city and looks a country town.

It is very green with a number of beautiful groupings of architecture, trees, gardens, lawns and bridges. The main building material is stone.

Cambridge University is known all over the world. It is a centre of educa­tion and learning. Newton, Byron, Darwin, Rutherford and many other scientists and writers were educated in Cambridge.

In Cambridge everything is centered on the University and its colleges the eldest of which was founded in 1284. They are twenty seven in number. There is a close connection between the University and colleges, though they are quite separate in theory and practice.

The college is a place where you live. The students studying literature and the students trained for physics may belong to the one and the same college. You are to be a member of a college in order to be a member of the University. Every college is headed by a dean. Proctors and numerous minor officials called bulldogs look after discipline.

A college is a group of buildings which forms a square with a green lawn in the centre. An old tradition does not allow the students to walk on the grass: this is the privilege of professors and head students only.

There is another tradition which the students are to follow: after sunset they are not allowed to go out without a black cap and a black coat.

The University existed before the colleges. It has the power to grant de­grees, it defines courses of study, and organizes most of the formal teaching. Professors and lecturers provide the teaching. The University trains 7000 stu­dents of different specialities.

Each student studies at the University for 4 years, three terms a year. He is trained by a tutor; each tutor has 10-12 students. The long vacation lasts three months.

Text № 2 Law

In all legal systems there are institutions for creating, modifying, abolishing and applying the law. Usually these take the form of hierarchy of courts. The role of each court and its capacity to make decisions is strictly defined in rela­tion to other courts. There are two main reasons for variety of courts. One is that a particular court can specialize in particular kinds of legal actions. The oth­er is so that a person who feels his case not fairly treated in a lower court can appeal to a higher court for reassessment. The decisions of a higher court are binding upon lower courts.

The court is a state body that administers justice on behalf of the state.

There are courts of first instance (original jurisdiction) and second instance (appellate jurisdiction). A court in which a case is first heard is called the court of first instance. A court of original jurisdiction is one which first examines a case in substance and brings in a sentence or decision. Any court, from the district court to the Supreme Court of the state, may sit as a court of first in­stance. In almost all cases it is possible to appeal to higher court for reconsid­eration of the decision of the original court. A court of second instance is one which examines appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of courts of first instance.

The Constitutional Court ensures that the laws and other normative acts passed or being considered by the supreme and local legislative branches are constitutional.

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body for civil, criminal, business and other cases. It has the power of supervision over the activities of all the judicial bodies of the state. The Supreme Court gives the court interpretation on the issues of court practice. It tries the most important criminal and civil cases and likewise hears appeals against the judgments and sentences of other courts, as well as appeals against the judgments and sentences of the military courts of the state.

The basic judicial body is the district court. District courts try both criminal and civil cases. It is also the duty of the district courts to protect the electoral rights of citizens. The higher courts of constituent entities of the Russian Fed­eration hear and determine cases of major importance. They are courts of appel­late jurisdiction.

The Supreme Arbitration Court is the highest judicial body for setting eco­nomic disputes and other cases examined by courts of arbitration; it exercises judicial supervision over their activities in the procedural forms envisaged by federal law and provides interpretation on issues of court proceedings.

In all courts cases are tried in public. The participants in the trial (the pros­ecutor, the lawyers, the plaintiff, the judge, the defendant and the others) speak in the open court. The accused is guaranteed the right to defend. The press has the right to be present.

During the hearing of a case any citizen may enter the courtroom and be present during the trial from the beginning to the end. The hearing of cases in closed session is allowed only in exceptional cases. Closed sessions are only allowed if it is in the interests of both sides or for the necessity to keep state secrets. Trial without participation of both sides is not allowed. The judges are independent and they must obey the law.

Text № 3 Psychology

The brain is a very complex structure and great ingenuity is required to discover how it operates. How can we tell whether a particular part of the brain is associated with a particular behavior? Historically, the question of localization of brain functions - whether certain brain areas control specific acts of func­tions - has been a topic of debate.

Technological advances in recent years have made it possible to study the brain more precisely than ever before. It is now well established that some func­tions are localized in fairly circumscribed brain areas: speech, recognition of spoken words, and the production of motor responses are examples. All areas of the human brain are not equipotential. On the other hand, many different brain regions are involved in such higher mental processes as reasoning and problem solving. In addition many functions are duplicated in more than one brain area. Thus, if one part of the brain is damaged by concussion or stroke, other areas can often take over its functions.

The following methods are the ones used most often by physiological psy­chologists and neurophysiologists in studying the brain.

Injury or surgical oblation. Noting the kind of symptoms produced when tumors or injuries damage certain parts of the brain may give clues about func­tions controlled by the area. Early observations that injury to the left side of the brain usually resulted in speech defects, whereas damage to the right side did not, led to localization of a speech centre in the left cerebral hemisphere. Im­proved methods of locating the area of injury and assessing the kind of lan­guage functions distribed have specified more exactly the areas involved in dif­ferent linguistic abilities.

In experiments with animals it is possible to remove systematically parts of the brain (or destroy the tissue electrically) and observe the kinds of defects that result. Sometimes ablation operations are performed on human patients when the removal of abnormal brain tissue is essential to their well-being (for example, to remove tumors or control epilepsy). Such patients are carefully stud­ied to assess the effects of the operation on their abilities.

Electrical or chemical stimulation. Stimulating parts of the brain with mild electrical currents produces effects on behavior. Brain surgery on human patients is often done under local anesthesia, so the surgeon can tell (by the patient's responses when different parts are stimulated electrically) which area to remove. From patient reports of sensations during stimulation, fairly accurate maps of the cortex have been obtained.

Studies with permanently implanted electrodes in animals help determine where sensory effects occur and where various types of muscular activity are controlled.

Chemical stimulation has also been widely used to affect behavior. Electrical effects of neural activity. When neural action occurs, slight electrical currents are produced. By inserting at appropriate places electrodes connected to measuring devices, the experimenter can detect whether impulses starting at, say, the ear reach the part of the brain where the electrodes are inserted.

The brain as a whole also produces rhythmical electrical discharges. The record of these total discharges, known as an electroencephalogram (EEG), plays its part in the study of central nervous system activity.

Text 4. Economics

The classical period of economics ranges from Adam Smith's "Wealth of Na­tions", which was published in 1776, to John Stuart Mill's "Principles of Political Econ­omy" of 1848, and was dominated by the works of David Ricardo. The French Physiocrats had laid stress on the position of agriculture in the economy, claiming that this sector was the source of all economic wealth. Smith rejected this view and drew attention to the development of manufacturing and the importance of labour production. Ultimately labour was the true measure of value. Ricardo took up the idea and created a theory of relative prices based on costs of production in which labour cost played the dominant role, although he accepted that capital costs were an addi­tional element. Capital played an important role, not only by improving labour pro­ductivity, but also by enabling labour to be sustained over the period of waiting before work bore fruit in consumable output. This was the idea of the wages fund. Wages were dependent on two forces: the demand for labour and the supply of labour, which was fixed in the short run, but in the long run was dependent on the standard of living. The latter was related to the level of subsistence. J.R. Malthus, in his theory of population, pointed to the need for restraint because of the presump­tion that there was a natural tendency for the growth of population to outstrip agri­cultural output. Ricardo analysed the implication of the productivity of land at the margin of cultivation. The Physiocrats and Adam Smith had attributed agricultural rent to the natural fertility of the soil, but Ricardo refuted this. Rent existed because of the poor fertility of the final increment of land taken under cultivation. Because of compe­tition, profits and labour costs must be the same everywhere and therefore a surplus must accrue to all land that was more fertile than that on the margin. This surplus was rent. The presumption of competition was the foundation of classical thought.

Classical economists continue to influence economists both in the United Kingdom and in other countries to this day. J.S. Mill's book was used as a school text until the end of the 19th century. Alfred Marshall in his "Principles of Economics" of 1890 assimilated the old classical economics with the new marginalism of Gevons, Menger and Walras. The great controversy which raged in the year of the Great Depression of the 1930's, between the late classical econ­omists and the advocates of deficit spending on public works was resolved at the time when the classical macroeconomic theory gave way to the new econom­ic revolution set in train by J.M. Keynes.

Classical economics continues to influence economists, however.

Text 5. Styles of Management

In the past two centuries managers of industry have taken, in general, two broadly different positions regarding management's social responsibilities. They are: "the laissez-faire" and the "paternal". The laissez -faire style of management is characterized by a devotion to the rigorous of the free market. Such managers feel no obligation to their employees outside the workplace, since the primary aim of a firm has been the maximization of profit. The paternal style of manage­ment, however, assumes the firm has obligations to its workers outside the work­place and to the larger community.

The laissez-faire style of management represents a sort of combination of laissez-faire economic theory and the Protestant ethic. In this view the owner or manager has no responsibility for the welfare of the workers outside the immediate working situa­tion and a person's situation in life is a reflection of his intrinsic merit in the eyes of God. The wages and other labour costs incurred by the firm are the result of compet­itive market conditions. In this view, then, the manager's responsibility to his employ­ees begins and ends with operating the firm in such an efficient manner that it is able to meet competition in the market place.

If all business managers similarly followed a policy of intelligent self-interest, the broad social interests of society would be better served than by any other policy. Paternalism begins with the assumption that management has a social responsibility to the communities in which its plants has been located. It means social responsibility management should take. In the early part of the 19th century the industrialist and social reformer Robert Owen was the first manufacturer to back up words about man­agement's social responsibilities with a program of action.

Owen was concerned with the social and economic conditions of workers and believed that the economic success of an enterprise did not have to depend upon exploitation of labour. In the mill town of New Lanark, Scot., Owen built workers' housing, schools, and a store that had been far superior to contempo­rary standards for workers' communities. The philosophy Robert Owen devel­oped had been influential in the development of the cooperative movement in England.

When Henry Ford started the industrial world with his announcement of the $5-a-day wage in 1914, he followed it with steps designed to help workers make good use of their increasing affluence. The company already had a small legal department set up to help workers with the complicated problem of home buy­ing, and then Ford established what he called a sociology department. It was staffed with social workers who made home visits to workers' families to pro­vide advice and help on family problems.

The rise of unions in the mass production industries of the United States in the 1930s helped to persuade executives that a paternalistic approach to labour and community relations was no longer feasible one. Extensions of manage­ment's social responsibilities were now achieved through collective bargaining. Still, these broader benefits, such as pensions and health insurance, were limited to the workers and their immediate families. There was a tendency to assume that any responsibility for the welfare of the community as a whole should be assumed by government.

Вариант №2

1. Напишите первую форму следующих глаголов:

  • founded, developed, studied, carried, constructed, surrounded, existed, joined, entered, worked, trained, headed;

  • taught, meant, cut, grew, laid, broke, saw, became, got, gave, wrote, sold

2. Напишите вторую и третью формы следующих глаголов (Past Indefinite, Participle II):

  • live, invite, ask, answer, last, fail, pass, allow, plan, connect, repeat, look;

  • say, show, tell, have, begin, take, do, spend, go, drive, win, lie

3. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

  1. Не has always helped me during our study.

  2. 1 have finished Exercise 1.

  3. My friend has received a letter from India.

  4. She has made a mistake in her test.

  5. The child has slept in the open air.

4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, отразив смысловое различие, внесённое глагольными формами. Определите время глагола в обоих предложениях:

  1. I shall be translating a very difficult scientific article during the second week of April.

2. By April I shall have translated a very difficult scientific article.

5. Поставьте глаголы, заключённые в скобки, в Past Indefinite или Present Perfect:

  1. I (have) a busy day today.

  2. She (have) a busy day last Sunday.

  3. I (be) to London twice.

  4. When (be) you there?

  5. They (come) back from the North a month ago.

6. Напишите следующие предложения в Past Indefinite u Future Indefinite:

  1. You must introduce the new methods.
  2. Children can help their parents about the house.

  3. The girl may stay at home.

7. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами или их эквивалентами:

You ... not break the rules.

  1. The teacher... explain the meaning of every word at the last lesson.

  2. The students ... use a dictionary while translating the text.

  3. He ... leave the lesson when he fell ill.

  4. Must we do all this work? No, you ....

  5. Children ... easily make up stories.

  6. 1 shall ... see my group-mates in the afternoon.

  7. You ... speak to him at once. Why didn't you?

  8. They will ... learn all the words of Unit 3.

  9. Will you ... teach your friend to swim?

8. Поставьте предложения в прошедшем и будущем времени;укажите время и залог глагола:

  1. The new metro stations are being built in our city.

  2. Many subjects are studied by the students at our Institute.

  3. The letters are received early in the morning.

  4. News is reported over the radio every day.

  5. The exercises are checked up in class.

  6. The children are taken great care of.

  7. The delegations are shown around our city.

  8. Urgent messages are sent by wire.

  9. Oranges are grown in the South.

  10. Hats are sold at the millinery.

9. Поставьте глаголы, заключённые в скобки, в соответствующую форму страдательного залога:

  1. Our guests (show) around the city now.

  2. Art festivals (be held) every other year.

  1. This scientific problem (speak) much about lately.

  2. The lecture (deliver) in French next time.

  3. The method (put) in practice a few months ago.

  4. A new method (put) in practice now.
  5. A lot of beautiful buildings (built) since that time.

  6. The article (write) soon.

  7. Another excursion (organize) for our group last Saturday.

10. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям:

  1. A taxi has been sent for.

  2. Many poems were learnt by heart.

  3. The play will be much spoken about.

  4. The child's temperature is taken each hour.

  5. The story is being read aloud.

11. Ответьте на следующие вопросы письменно:

  1. When was America discovered?

  2. By whom was it discovered?

  3. The new continent was named after Amerigo Vespussi, wasn't it?

  4. Why was the continent named after Amerigo Vespussi ?

Переведите тексты письменно.

Text №1 Oxford

The city of Oxford is like London. It is very old, it is international and it is situated on the river Thames.

Oxford is a beautiful and a very green city. Green fields and parks surround the city. The river Thames is situated quite near the city.

We say that Oxford is old and historical because it has existed since 912. The University was founded in 1249. Oxford is international because people from many parts of the world come to study at the University. They come to study at men's colleges or at one of the women's colleges that are the Univer­sity: they join the University "family" which has more than 9000 members (among them only three hundred women who study at the women's colleges). The red buildings of the women's colleges are new. The men's colleges are beautiful grey old buildings. Each year more than one thousand students enter Oxford University. The entrance exams are difficult. It is necessary to work hard to become a student of Oxford University.

When a new woman student comes to Oxford she is shown the room where she will live. Then a third-year student of the University invites her to her room for tea together with some other nine new first-year students. She tells them everything about college life and answers their questions.

The academic year in England has three terms which usually last from the beginning of October to the middle of December, from the middle of January to the end of March and from the middle of April to the end of June.

Examinations take place at the end of each term. If a student fails in an ex­amination, he may be allowed to take the exam again. Only two re-examinations are usually allowed.

The University of Oxford has a tutorial system of education: every student has a tutor (a teacher) who plans his work. Each week some students come to see him; they tell their tutor about the work they have done. Only the Universi­ties of Oxford and Cambridge have this system of education. There are no tuto­rial systems of education in other English Universities which are usually situated in large industrial centres.

The students of Oxford must spend morning hours working. They have classes, lectures and seminars or they study in their rooms. At two they have a dinner break which lasts till four. After tea they resume their studies. Almost all srudents go in for some kind of sport. The life of the students at Oxford is interesting.

Text 2. Crime

A crime is understood as a socially dangerous act (or omission) directed against the social and state system, the system of economy, property and oth­er rights of citizens or any other act infringing law and order which is defined in criminal legislation as dangerous to society.

Criminal legislation states that there can be no criminal responsibility where the nature of the act is not socially dangerous. In consequence, criminal law does not regard as a crime an act or omission which, even if formally containing features of some act covered by criminal law, does not constitute a danger to society on account of its triviality.

Each crime consists of a number of individual elements. Those elements char­acterize the purpose of a criminal act, the form and method of an action, the character of a criminal act and so forth. The total sum of elements defining a specific crime comprises what is known as the corpus delicti of a crime. The corpus delicti in any act is grounds for establishing criminal responsibility against the offender. A person may not be considered guilty of having commit­ted a crime unless several elements of corpus delicti of that crime have been established in his acts. In the absence of any element of corpus delicti in the acts of the accused, criminal proceedings may not be instituted, and if institut­ed, may not be continued, and must be stopped at any stage. In pronouncing its sentence the court must above all answer these questions: a) did the act as­cribed to the accused actually take place? b) does it contain corpus delicti? c) was the act performed by the accused? The object of a crime is, under criminal law, social relations guarded by criminal legislation. This means that all crimes prescribed by the Criminal Code are ultimately aimed against the social relations taking shape and developing in so­ciety. However, each crime has an immediate object. Thus, murder has its imme­diate object - human life, theft - state, collective or personal property; rowdyism (hooliganism) - public law and order, etc.

A crime may be committed by an act, i.e. the active behaviour of a person, or persons, or by an omission, i.e. the non-performance of acts which it was his duty to perform (such as failure to use authority).

The subject of a crime is a person who commits the crime and is responsi­ble for it. Only persons who have attained a certain age and are compos mentis can be the subject of a crime. Persons who have the age of 16 before the com­mission of a crime are criminally responsible; for some crimes (murder, deliberate infliction of bodily injury impairing health, brigandage, stealing, robbery, hooli­ganism with evil intent, etc.) the age is 14 years.

Actually, the age limit for some crimes (committed by persons in office in their official capacity, military crimes, etc.) is considerably higher.

A person who, at the time of the commission of a socially dangerous act, is non-compos mentis, i.e. is unable to account for his actions or to govern them in consequence of chronic mental disease, temporary mental derangement, weak-mindedness or some other morbid state, is not criminally responsible. Compulso­ry medical treatment as established by the criminal legislation of the state (plac­ing in a general or special mental hospital) may be applied to such a person by a court order.

A person who, at the time of the commission of a crime, is compos mentis but, before a sentence is passed by the court, is affected by mental derange­ment, is not liable to punishment. By an order of the court compulsory medical treatment may be applied to such a person and on recovery from his illness he may be liable to punishment. A person committing a crime while in a state of drunkenness is not relieved of criminal responsibility.

Text № 3 Psychopathy

There is no well-supported theory of psychopathy; many factors are in­volved that may vary from case to case. Current research focuses on biological determinants and on the qualities of the parent - child relationship that rein­force psychopathic styles of coping with reality.

The clinical impression that the psychopathic individual experiences little anxiety about future discomforts or punishments has been supported by exper­imental studies. One study compared two groups of adolescent male delin­quents. The experimenters tested galvanic skin response (GSR) under stress. Dummy electrodes were attached to each subject's leg, and he was told that in 10 minutes he would be given a very strong but not harmful shock. (A large clock was visible so that the subject knew precisely when the shock was sup­posed to occur; no shock was actually administered). The two groups showed no difference in GSR measures during periods of rest or in response to auditory or visual stimulation. However, during the 10 minutes of shock anticipation, the nonpsychopathic group showed significanly more tension than the psychopathic group, and at the moment when the clock indicated shock was due, most of the nonpsychopathic delinquents showed an abrupt drop in skin resistance (indicat­ing a sharp increase in anxiety); none of the psychopaths showed this reaction (Lippert&Senter, 1966). Other studies in prison have shown that psychopaths do not learn to avoid shocks as quickly as normal or neurotic individuals do, nor evidence as much autonomic nervous system activity as other prisoners under a variety of conditions (Hare, 1970).

These findings have led to the hypothesis that psychopathic individuals may have been born with an underreactive autonomic nervous system; this would explain why they seem to require so much excitement and why they fail to respond normally to the threats of danger that deter most people from antiso­cial acts. Interpretations must be made with caution, however. It is possible that psychopaths view experimental situations as something of a game and they try to play it "extra cool" by attempting to control their responses.

Text M 4 Economics

It is not only customary but also logical to begin the study of any subject with its definition. But, when we come to economics, we are seriously handi­capped in this regard, as there is neither a single comprehensive definition of the subject nor a general agreement among economists on the appropriateness of a particular definition. Economics being a developing and dynamic subject, its true range is not yet fixed. It cannot be fixed, either. This is because economics develops changes with time; and time is never steady or stern. Things change with time, so does economics: its scope-boundaries of the subject-matter, range, method and mode of analysis, approach to thinking on economic ideas and insti­tutions, their role and significance, everything changes when time moves. Per­haps, for these reasons, economists like Hutchinson and Myrdal are of the opin­ion that economists need to be rigid regarding the precise definition of econom­ics, since a mere definition is of little use in explaining and solving the economic problems faced by man in his life.

This, however, does not mean that one can remain silent on the question of defining economics. An attempt to provide a systematic, comprehensive and analytical definition of the subject is essential to know its nature, scope, signif­icance and limitations. "Definition", as Erich Roll says, "is an essential part of any systematic discipline and the limits of field which it sets out to cultivate should be clearly marked. It is by definition that we assign to each discipline its room in the building of knowledge".

Text 5. Personnel Management

Personnel administration represents a major subsystem in the general man­agement system in which it refers to the management of human resources. It is used to identify the entire scope of management policies and programs in the recruitment, allocation, leadership, and direction of manpower. Personnel administration begins with the definition of the required quantities of particular personal capabilities. Thereafter, people are to be found, selected, trained or re­trained, negotiated with, counseled, led, directed, committed, rewarded, trans­ferred, promoted, and finally released or retired.

In many of these relations, managers deal with their associates as individu­als — the field takes its name in part from this type of relationship. In some working organizations, however, employees have been represented by unions, and managers bargain with these associations. Such collective-bargaining rela­tionships are generally described as labour relations. Functions of management we should consider here could be defined in the following way.

Major areas of personnel department responsibilities include organizing-devising and revising organizational structures of authority and functional responsibil­ity. They are aimed to facilitate two-way, reciprocal, vertical and horizontal com­munication. The next one is staffing, or manning-analyzing jobs that develop job descriptions and specifications. That is — appraising and maintaining an in­ventory of available capabilities, recruiting, selecting, placing, transferring, demot­ing, promoting and thus assuring qualified manpower when and where it is needed.

Planning and forecasting personnel requirements in terms of numbers and special qualifications as well as scheduling inputs, has been marked as very important for anticipating the need for appropriate managerial policies and pro­grams. One should bear in mind that training the development-assisting team members, from pre-employment. preparatory job training to executive develop­ment programs will be able to secure their continuing personal growth. It is nec­essary for a personnel manager to make collective bargaining-negotiating agree­ments and in follow these ones through in day-to-day administration;

Rewarding a personnel manager have to ensure provides financial and non-financial incentives for individual commitment and contribution. And of course, general administration - developing appropriate styles and patterns of leadership throughout the organization is one of the main areas of personnel management. It should be also mentioned here the importance of auditing, reviewing, and re­searching, that is, evaluating current performance and procedures in order to facilitate control and improve future practice.

To designate equally a body of knowledge, a process and a profession the term "ergonomics" or "human-factors engineering" has been used. Human engineering they have called it on the North American continent or ergonomics as it has been called in Japan, in Europe are originated from the Greek words: "ergon" — "work" and "nomos" — law. It is a collection of data and principles about human characteristics, capabilities and limitations in relation to ma-chines, jobs and environments, to take into account the safety, comfort, and productive­ness of human users and operators. The data and principles of human-factors engineering are concerned with human performance, behaviour and training in man-machine systems and the design and development of man-machine sys­tems.

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