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1. Напишите следующие прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени:

beautiful, good, pale, thin, lazy, bad, hot, difficult, dirty, short, long, interest­ing, deep, young

2. Поставьте взятые в скобки прилагательные и наречия в сравнительную и превосходную степени:

  1. Who is the (strong) boy in your group?

  2. One of the (interesting) places in our city is the embankment.

  3. Yekaterinburg is one of the (big) industrial centres of Russia.

  4. Yesterday we came home (early) than usual.

  5. With the coming of the spring all people seemed (happy) and (quiet).

  6. Today the weather is (bad) than it was yesterday.

  7. It was the (good) reward we wished.

  8. He is (little) educated than his father.

  9. Where is the (far) point?

3. Заполните пропуски союзами as ... as, (not) so ... as и переведите предложения на русский язык:

  1. Is Yekaterinburg ... big ... Moscow?

  2. The Don is ... long ... the Volga.

  3. The weather is ... nice today ... it was yesterday.

  4. What other months are ... long ... April?

  5. The last winter was not ... cold ... this winter.

  6. My room is ... light ... yours.

  7. This English book is not ...easy for me ... the book you gave me to read last time.

  8. I do not get up ... early on Sunday ... on week-days.

4. Переведите следующие словосочетания на английский язык:

более трудный предмет, самая важная проблема, самый большой в России, самые глубокие знания, менее трудный экзамен, самый молодой, менее важный, намного интереснее, гораздо легче, намного лучше, гораздо дешевле

5. Напишите глаголы, данные в скобках, в соответствующей форме; соблюдайте правила согласования времён:

  1. We were informed that many scientists (work) at that problem.

  2. The foreign tourists asked when the plant (put) to operation.

  3. We thought that the results of the work (be) better.

  1. They said that they (study) at the library for two hours the day be­
    fore yesterday.

  2. The experiments proved that great economy (can) be realized by us­ing automation.

  3. At the press conference the engineers were asked whether they (car­ry out) everything programmed by the scientists.

  4. The teacher was sure that all his students (be ready) for the test that

  1. The newspapers reported that a new engine (be) launched.

  1. The assistants said that they (look for) the data which were necessary for their research.

  2. The lecturer said that mathematics and science (supply) the principal
    tools for discovering, testing and stating the laws of nature.

6. В данных предложениях определите, чем являются в них слова с окончанием -ing (герундий, причастие, отлагательное существительное). Переведите предложения на русский язык:

  1. Talking with him is a real pleasure.

  2. The professor insisted on doing it immediately.

  3. A new broadcasting station has begun to function.

  4. Everything depends on your being here in time.

  5. The news was exciting.

  6. After signing the document the secretary went away.

  7. My brother's going abroad upset all our plans.

  8. You will find difficulty in solving this problem.

  9. The launching of the new apparatus is the indication of the outstand­ing progress of the country's science and technology.

7. Переведите предложения:
  1. Astronomers know of galaxies existing in various shapes and sizes.

  2. There is no hope of our completing the experiment soon.

  3. They insisted on the devices being reexamined.

  1. The girl was confused by our all observing her.

  2. He went to the door to listen to her coming up.

  3. There being an extensive system of evening and correspondence ed­ucation in this country, a great number of people are part-time and correspondence students.

  4. Vast sums being spent on education in the country, the state is able to provide qualified specialists for all branches of industry.

  5. Holiday accommodation and facilities being cheap, all the students can spend their vacations in camps, rest homes, etc.

  6. The work having been done, they went for a short walk.

  7. College courses finished, all the graduates get work according to their speciality.

8. Переведите предложения:

  1. We consider Isaac Newton to be one of the greatest mathematicians
    of all times.

  1. 1 saw her making experiments in the laboratory.

  2. They want this project to be completed as soon as possible.

  3. We watched scientists testing a new device.

  4. They expect us to have accomplished our task.

  5. We believe them to be supplied with all the necessary documents.

  6. We suppose the parts of the report to have been replaced.

  7. I'd like him to make a report at the scientific conference.

  1. Radio and television allow us to communicate with the remotest cor­ners of the world.

  2. The whole world knows his ideas to have had a great influence on world science.

9. Переведите предложения:

  1. Electric current is known to flow in metal parts.
  2. The doctor noticed the temperature of the child to be rising.

  3. The weather is known to depend on many natural factors.

  4. We want our reports to be listened to at the today's meeting.

  5. The experiment is supposed to be completed.

  6. I have never seen him making experiments in the laboratory.

  1. The future is expected to bring a great many new scientific discoveries.

10. Употребите глаголы, заключённые в скобках, в соответствующей форме в придаточных предложениях времени и условия:

  1. If you (translate) this article into Russian, I shall use it in my report.

  2. When everybody (come), we shall start the discussion.

  3. If I (be) free tomorrow, I shall call you.

  1. He will remember it as long as he (live).

  2. You will not master a foreign language unless you (work) hard.

  3. If she (be) in Moscow now, she will meet you.

  4. We shall discuss the book after you (read) it.

  5. I shall do it while you (talk) to him.

  6. They will wait till you (return).

  7. What will you be doing when he (come) to your place?

11. Переведите предложения и определите тип условного предложения:

1. If you knew him better, you would be sorry for him.

  1. If you see him, ask him to come.

  2. If it had rained yesterday, we should have stayed at home.

  3. If they had bought the tickets beforehand, we should have listened to the concert.

  4. In case she comes ask her to wait.

  5. If you had been present at the lecture, you would not have asked questions.

  6. If it were my own book, I should give it to you.

  7. I shall not be able to translate the text unless 1 get a dictionary.

12. Раскройте скобки. Составьте предложения, с нереальным условием, относящимся к настоящему и к будущему:

  1. If it (not to be) so dark, I (can) go for a walk.

  2. If you (understand) children, you (not to speak) like that.

  3. The flowers (grow) better if you (water) them regularly.

  4. If you (not to be) so angry, you (can) understand it yourself.

  5. If she (want) to see you, she (can) come.

  6. Even if he (be) here, I (say) the same.

  7. If I (know) about it, I (help) you.

  8. If I (know) how bad the film was, I (not to go) to the cinema.

  9. She (know) how to act if she (be given) all the instructions.

  10. If you (be) silent, they (forget) all about it in an hour.

  11. He (be) very glad if you (bring) him his book.

  12. If the poem (not to be) so long, he (learn) it by heart.
    11. If it (not to be) so late, we (not to leave).

Переведите тексты письменно.

Text 1 International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund or IMF is a specialized agency of the United Nations, having been established along with International Bank for Reconstruc­tion and Development — the World Bank — at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in 1944 at Bretton Woods. The IMF is recorded to have begun operations in 1947. Its purpose is to promote international mon­etary co-operation and to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of inter­national trade. It may be achieved through the establishment of a multilateral system of payments for current transactions and the elimination of foreign trade restrictions. It now has an important role in development economics as a facili­tator of the transition to full participation in the world economy.

The IMF is a permanent forum for consideration of issues of international payments in which member nations are encouraged to maintain an orderly pattern of exchange rates and to avoid restrictive exchange practices. It also provides advice on economic policy and fiscal policy, promotes world policy co-ordina­tion, and gives technical assistance for central banks, accounting, taxation and other financial matters. Membership, currently comprising 179 countries, is open to all sovereign nations. Members undertake to keep the IMF informed about economic and financial policies that impinge on the exchange value of their na­tional currencies. As a result, other members can make appropriate policy deci­sions.

On joining the fund. each member is assigned a quota in Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), the fund's unit of account since its establishment in 1969. Its value is based on the weighted average value of five major currencies. In March 1994 the SDR was worth US$ 1.41. Having replaced the old system, where sub­scription of members was to be 75 per cent currency and 25 per cent gold the total quotas at the end of 1994 were SDR 144.8 billion. Each member's quota is an amount corresponding to its relative position in the world economy. As the world's leading economy, the United States has the largest quota, some SDR 19 billion; the smallest quota is about SDR 2 million.

The amount of the quota subscription determines how large a vote a mem­ber will have in IMF deliberations, how much foreign exchange it may withdraw from the fund, and how many SDRs it will receive in periodic allocations. Thus, the European Union has about 25 per cent of the voting strength, while the United States has about 20 per cent. If members have temporary balance of payments difficulties, they will apply to the fund for needed foreign currency from its pool of resources. The IMF may also borrow from official institutions. General Agreement to Borrow of 1962 gave it the right to borrow from the so-called "Paris Club" of industrialized countries which have undertaken to make up to US$ 6.5 billion available if needed (this sum was raised to US$ 17 billion).

On using this foreign exchange for a certain time, the borrower extricates itself from its balance of payments problem. After having it for the period up to five years, the currency is to be returned to the IMF's pool of resources. If the borrower uses the IMF resources, he will pay a below-market rate of interest. The member whose currency is used receives almost all of these interest payments. The remainder goes to the fund for operating expenses. The IMF is thus not a bank, but sells countries SDRs in exchange for their own currency. The IMF also supports economic develop­ment, such as the establishment of functioning free market economies in the former Warsaw Pact countries. This includes a special temporary fund, established in 1993, to offset trade and balance of payments difficulties experienced by any member coun­try abandoning artificial price control policies.

By the end of March 1994 these had provided SDR 4.3 billion to 44 coun­tries. On receiving loans under IMF terms, the nation frequently has stiff clauses attached regarding domestic economic policy. These have been the cause of some friction between the IMF and its debtors in the past. The board of gover­nors is the highest authority in the IMF, the member nations being made-up of leading monetary officials. Day-to-day operations will be the responsibility of the 22-member executive board, which represents member nations individually (for larger countries) or if it represents them in groups. The managing director chairs the executive board. Main headquarters is in Washington, D.C.

Text 2. International Marketing

The International Marketing Manager has a three-fold responsibility; interna­tional marketing — marketing across national boundaries: foreign marketing — marketing within foreign countries; and multinational marketing — coordinating marketing in multiple markets. Marketing being defined in several ways, broadly we may define it as the collection of activities undertaken by the firm to relate profitability to its market. Marketing involves all of these activities: market intel­ligence, product planning and development, buying, storage, selling, crediting, pricing, traffic, distribution, advertising, promotion and marketing research.

Marketing management is the planning and co-ordination of these activities in order to achieve a successful, integrated marketing program, international marketing to be defined as the performance of one or more of these activities across national boundaries. The activities and goals of international marketing are the same as those of domestic marketing, implementation of the firm's mar­keting programs having been considered very different. That is, managing inter­national marketing can be significantly different from managing domestic market­ing. If one tries to define personal selling as the major promotional tool, it will appear to be even more important in international marketing than domestically.

Personal Selling is commonly known to take a greater percentage of the promo­tional bud-get abroad than at home. There may be two reasons for this: restrictions on advertising and media availability will limit the amount of advertising the firm can do, and low wages in many countries allow the company to hire a larger sales force. This second reason will be especially applicable when personal selling takes place in less developed nations. Personal selling involves personal contact and is more cul­ture-bound than impersonal advertising. That is why personal selling in the firm's foreign markets cannot really be considered international personal selling, to be com-

pared with international campaigns and international media in discussing advertising. So, personal selling is national, not international.

The role of personal selling having been decided, the actual administration of the sales force in a market will be similar to that in the home market. The same general functions must be per-formed: recruitment, selection, training, mo­tivation, supervision, and compensation. Training of salespeople is done prima­rily in the national market. The demands of the job and the previous preparation of the sales force will determine the nature of the training program. Indeed, if motivation and compensation of the sales force are closely related, attractive compensation will be often the chief motivator.

Motivation can be more of a challenge abroad than at home for two reasons: the low esteem in which selling is held, and the cultural reluctance of prospec­tive sales representatives to talk to strangers. On defining these two essential elements of selling, the firm must try to overcome this handicap, especially in countries where selling has low status. Training, titles, perquisites, and special recognition of salesperson's self-image are all helpful. The licensee's or distribu­tor's sales force is important in making the quality of sales force a major criterion in choosing the distributor.

In joint ventures the international marketer may have a small or a big voice in selling, de-pending on the capabilities of both partner. The greater the control given to the international firm in the marketing of the joint venture, the more the situation resembles that of a wholly owned subsidiary. The less the control, the more the situation resembles that in a licensing or distributor agreement. With sales force management being largely decentralized, personal selling is related to the peculiarities of the local market. Nevertheless, international marketers should play same role. On contributing expertise in every aspect of sales force man­agement recruitment, selection, training, motivation, compensation and eval­uation they serve as the clearinghouse between domestic and foreign oper­ations, and among the foreign markets themselves.


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