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Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные способы перевода оборота there + be:
а) 1. There are many students at the lecture today.
2. There is a blackboard in front of the students' desks.
3. There were cars in front of the house. There were several men there too.
б) 1. There are hundreds of different plastics.
2. There are different types of rocket motors.
3. There are several kinds of surfaces.
Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на слова-заместители:
а) 1. This solid is denser than that one. 2. The right hand is usually stronger than the left one. 3. These boxes are very small. We want to get bigger ones.
б) 1. This is a new measuring instrument, its accuracy is much higher than that of the old one. 2. The freezing point of water on the Centigrade scale is 0° and that on the Fahrenheit scale is +32°. 3. The density of the liquid air is only a little less than that of water. 2. Weather conditions in the North were studied by meteorologists daily. The information about these conditions was being studied by our groupfor a week. 3. In order to break this glass a great amount of force must be applied.
4. The laboratory assistant will be the last to leave the classroom.
5. The problem to find a more economical way of production is to be solved soon.
Переведите предложения, определив функцию причастия: а) определение, б) обстоятельство, в) часть сказуемого.
a) Participle I
1. A molecule is a compound consisting of two or more atoms.
2. Combining hydrogen with oxygen in the proportion of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen we produce water.
3.When speaking about oxygen it is necessary to say that it is a colourless, odourless gas havingdensity at standard pressure and temperature of about one seven-hundredth that of water. It is soluble in water becoming liquid at about 180°C.
1.The solution of the problem required concentrated efforts ofmany scientists. 2. At present scientists take great interest in the methods of turning the light and heat of the sun directly into electricity.
КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №2
Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить задание №2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:
1. Видовременные формы глагола: активный залог – формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future); формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future); формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future); б) пассивный залог – формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future).
Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.
2. Модальные глаголы: а) выражающие возможность can (could), may и эквивалент глагола can – to be able; б) выражающие долженствование: must to, его эквиваленты have to, to be to, should.
3. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle I (Present Participle), Participle II (Past Participle) в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Gerund - герундий, простые формы.
4. Определительные и дополнительные придаточные предложения (союзные); придаточные обстоятельственные предложения времени и условия.
5. Интернациональные слова.
Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений.
I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.
4. colour-blindness – дальтонизм, неспособность глаза различать некоторые цвета
HERMAN HELMHOLZ1 (1821-1894)
1. Herman Helmholtz is celebrated2 for his contributions to physiology and theoretical physics. A delicate child, Helmholtz early displayed a passion for understanding things, but developed slowly, and had no marked early talent for mathematics. Although he wished to study physics, he was persuaded by his father to take up the study of medicine, entering the Medical Institute at Berlin in 1838.
2. His researches into physiological optics began about 1850 the discovery of the ophthalmoscope3 (1851), followed by investigation into colour, including the problem of colour-blindness.4 He also made fundamental contribution to the under-of the structure and mechanism of the human eye.
3. Helmholtz's first, and most celebrated paper in theoretical article on the conservation of force. In this paper he proved the conservation of total energy of a system of particles which were interacting through5 central forces depending only on the masses and separations of the particles. Other important work in theoretical physics included the famous paper on vortex motion6 (1858), and the application of the principle of least action to electrodynamical problems.
4. Helmholtz was undoubtedly the most versatile7 of nineteenth-century scientists. From 1871 onwards he was perhaps more famous as a theoretical physicist than as a physiologist. But it seems probable that apart from his work on the conservation of energy he will ultimately8 be remembered more for his epoch-making researches in physiological optics and acoustics in which his talents as physiologist, physicist, mathematician and experimentalist of genius were most vividly displayed. 1. Energy can exist in many forms and each form can be transformed into the other.
D.I. MENDELEYEV (1834-1907)
1. A Russian name appeared in 1964 on the honorary board of science at Bridgeport University, USA: Mendeleyev was added to the list of the greatest geniuses - Euclid, Archimedes, Copernicus, Galilei, Newton and Lavoisier. D.I. Mendeleyev, the explorer of nature, is the greatest chemist of the world. The Mendeleyev system has served for almost 100 years as a key to elements and it has retained its key capacity until now.
2. D.I. Mendeleyev was the fourteenth, and last child of the Director of the Gymnasium at Tobolsk. At 16 he was taken by mother to St. Petersburg to seek higher education. He entered Pedagogical Institute where his father has also studied. In 1856 he took a degree in chemistry and in 1859 he was sent abroad for two years for further training. He returned to St. Petersburg in 1861 as Professor of Chemistry.
3. In 1868 Mendeleyev began to write a great textbook of chemistry, known in its English translation as the “Principles of Chemistry”. In compiling this,2 he tried to find some system of classifying the elements – some sixty in all3 then known – whose properties he was describing. This led him to formulate the Periodic Law, which earned him lasting international fame. He presented it verbally4 to the Russian Chemical Society in October 8 and published it in February 1869.
LISE MEITNER1 (1878-1968)
1. In 1938, an Austrian physicist named Lise Meitner announced the splitting of the atom in the laboratory. That announcement confirmed once again the beginning of the Atomic Age. At that time Lise Meitner was one of the few persons in the world who had a thorough understanding of atomic energy and the uses which could be made of this great power.
2. Lise Meitner, the daughter of a lawyer, was born in Vienna on the 17th of November 1878. She grew interested in science when she read of the Curies' discovery of radium. The example of Marie Curie showed that a woman was able to achieve something in science. Lise Meitner became the first woman in the history of the University of Vienna who earned her doctorate2 in physics.
СH. V. RAMAN1 (I888-1970)
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