litceysel.ru
добавить свой файл
1 2 3
Контрольная работа №1


Глаголы, данные в скобках, поставьте в соответствующем лице и числе в Present и Past Indefinite. Предложения переведите:


  1. Mr. Black (to be) a professor of mathematics.

  2. He (to have) many students at his lecture.

  3. I (to be) a student too; I (to be) a schoolboy only three months ago.

  1. Only one student (to have) no pencil and ruler. This (to be) John Smith.

  1. There (to be) many things on the teacher's table.

  2. There (to be) a table over the bookcase.

  3. Yesterday we (to have) two lectures.



Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные способы перевода оборота there
+ be:

а
) 1. There are many students at the lecture today.

2. There is a blackboard in front of the students' desks.

3. There were cars in front of the house. There were several men there too.

б) 1. There are hundreds of different plastics.

2. There are different types of rocket motors.

3. There are several kinds of surfaces.


Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на слова-заместители:

а
) 1. This solid is denser than that one. 2. The right hand is usually stronger than the left one. 3. These boxes are very small. We want to get bigger ones.

б) 1. This is a new measuring instrument, its accuracy is much higher than that of the old one. 2. The freezing point of water on the Centigrade scale is 0° and that on the Fahrenheit scale is +32°. 3. The density of the liquid air is only a little less than that of water.



Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сказуемое:

а) с модальным глаголом:

1. We must use new methods in our research work.

2. Due to the energy of the atom man can produce electric energy at atomic power stations.

3. You may use this instrument for measuring gas pressure.

4. The planet Pluto is so far away that we cannot study it easily.

5. They ought to help their friend to solve this important problem.

6. He could not complete his research in time as he worked very slowly.

7. You should turn off the light before you leave the room.

б) с эквивалентом модального глагола:

1. The students were unable (were not able) to do the work without their teacher’s help. He had to help them.

2. You needn’t take all these measurements. We already know the volume of gas in this tube.

3. This power station was to supply us with all necessary energy.

4. He had to work hard before he was able to complete his research.

5. The atom is to serve mankind.

6. You will have to show the equation to your teacher.

7. Nobody was able to understand this mysterious phenomenon.

8. As the student was late he was not allowed to enter the classroom.


Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на время и залог сказуемого:

1. Interesting and important researches are done all over the world. An interesting research in the field of electronics is being done at ourInstitute.

2. Weather conditions in the North were studied by meteorologists daily. The information about these conditions was being studied by our groupfor a week.


3. The accuracy of machine tools will be improved from year to year. One machine tool is being worked at in our laboratory.

4. Prospects of the usage of solar energy are understood by everybody. Now solar energy and its usage are being studied by a lot of research groups.


Переведите предложения, в которых инфинитив является:

а) подлежащим:

1.Тоtrain highly qualified scientific workers is extremely important for the development of science.

2. To study this phenomenon requires much knowledge.

б) частьюсказуемого:

1. Our task is to obtain a new mixture with new properties.

2. The engineer must know the conditions under which the new material is to be utilized.

3. The new apparatus was to control all the temperature changes during the experiment.

в) дополнением:

1. They hope to be sent to the conference.

2. The engineer was asked to design a transistor device which will regulate the temperature in the laboratory.

г) обстоятельством:

1. We must build as many power stations as possible to meet a power needs in industry and agriculture.

2. To increase the productivity of the machine tool one should know the characteristics of the material which is being machined.

3. In order to break this glass a great amount of force must be ap­plied.


4. This problem is too complex to be solved by students.

5. This method is accurate enough to give reliable results.

д) определением:

1. The process to be analysed in this article is known as ionization.


  1. Our plant produces automatic and semiautomatic machine tools to be installed in new large shops.

  2. The famous Russian scientist Lebedev was the first to solve the problem of synthetic rubber.

4. The laboratory assistant will be the last to leave the classroom.

5. The problem to find a more economical way of production is to be solved soon.


Переведите предложения, определив функцию причастия: а) определение, б) обстоятельство, в) часть сказуемого.

a) Participle I

1. A molecule is a compound consisting of two or more atoms.

2. Combining hydrogen with oxygen in the proportion of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen we produce water.

3.When speaking about oxygen it is necessary to say that it is a colourless, odourless gas havingdensity at standard pressure and temperature of about one seven-hundredth that of water. It is soluble in water becoming liquid at about 180°C.

  1. While burningdifferent substances combine with oxygen.

  2. The assistant was preparing the solution very carefully.

  3. The solution is boiling.

  4. The boiling solution has neither colour nor odour.

б)Participle II

1.The solution of the problem required concentrated efforts ofmany scientists.


2. The data required were analysed in our laboratory.

3. When required, the data will be applied in our practical work.

4. The investigations analysed resulted in an interesting discovery.

5. Heated glass is plastic.

6. When heated, glass can be easily worked.

7. Some heat-resistant types of glasses can be heated until they are red anddo not break, if then placed into ice water.


Дайте возможные варианты перевода предложений с герундием вфункции:

а) подлежащего:

1. Maintaining constant temperature and pressure during the test was absolutely necessary.

2. The student's taking part in the research was of great help to the wholelaboratory.

3. His offering new temperature conditions for the system will give greater efficiency.

б) сказуемого:

1. The task of the factory was producing corrosion-resistant polymers in far larger quantities.

2.Their aim is finding new ways of utilizing this first-class polymer in light industry.

в) дополнения:

1. The experimentalist suggested purifying the solution by a newmethod.

2.The researcher took great interest in our improving the properties of the rubber-like substances.

3. We know of silver and copper being very good conductors of electricity

г) определения:

1. The new heating and lighting installations supply the shops of our plant with heat and light.

2. At present scientists take great interest in the methods of turning the light and heat of the sun directly into electricity.


д) обстоятельства:

1. By subjecting air to very great pressure and cooling it is possible to transform it to the liquid state.


  1. One cannot transform water into steam without heating it.

  2. In converting water into ice we do not change its composition.

  3. Physical changes are those which influence the condition or stateof matter without changing its composition.



КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №2


Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить задание №2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

1. Видовременные формы глагола: активный залог – формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future); формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future); формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future); б) пассивный залог – формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future).

Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.

2. Модальные глаголы: а) выражающие возможность can (could), may и эквивалент глагола can – to be able; б) выражающие долженствование: must to, его эквиваленты have to, to be to, should.

3. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle I (Present Participle), Participle II (Past Participle) в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Gerund - герундий, простые формы.

4. Определительные и дополнительные придаточные предложения (союзные); придаточные обстоятельственные предложения времени и условия.

5. Интернациональные слова.

Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений.


Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. 1)

ЛЕВАЯ СТРАНИЦА

ПРАВАЯ СТРАНИЦА


a) Lobachevsky’s geometry had revolutionized mathematics and the philosophy of science.

Геометрия Лобачевского произвела изменение в математике и философии науки.

had revolutionized – Past Perfect Active от глагола to revolutionize.

б) The new laboratory equipment was send for yesterday.

Вчера послали за новым оборудованием лаборатории

was send for - Past Indefinite Passive от глагола to send


Образец выполнения 2 (к упр. 2)

ЛЕВАЯ СТРАНИЦА


ПРАВАЯ СТРАНИЦА

1. The changes affecting the composition of materials are called chemical changes.

Изменения, влияющие на состав материалов, называются химическими изменениями.

Affecting – participle I, определение.

2. When heated to the boiling point water evaporates.

Когда воду нагревают до точки кипения, она испаряется.

(When) heated – Participle II, обстоятельство.

3. Heat is radiated by the Sun to the Earth.

Тепло излучается Солнцем на Землю

Radiated – Participle, составляющая часть видовременной формы

Present Indefinite Passive от глагола to radiate.



ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.



а) 1. Soviet chemical science is successfully solving many complex problems.

2. Radio astronomy has given mankind efficient means for penetration into space.

б) 1. Becquerel’s discovery was followed by an intensive research work of Marie and Pierre Curie.

2. Heat energy is transmitted in two different ways.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Nylon was the first synthetic fibre used in clothing.

2. The atoms forming our planet are built of negative electrons, positive protons and ordinary neutrons.

3. This kind of treatment when used makes the metals heat resistant.

4. When passing through an electroscope, X-rays cause its discharge.


III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. One object may be larger than another one, but it may weigh less.

2. Mass can also be defined as a measure of inertia.

3. Man-made satellites had to use solar cells as a source of power.

4. Plastics should be reinforced by different kinds of fibres.


IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.


Пояснения к тексту

1. Herman Helmholtz – Герман Гельмгольц


  1. celebrated – знаменитый, прославленный

  2. ophthalmoscope – офтальмоскоп

4. colour-blindness – дальтонизм, неспособность глаза различать некоторые цвета
  1. through – из-за, благодаря


  2. vortex motion — вихревое движение

  3. versatile — разносторонний, многосторонний

  4. ultimately — в конечном счете, в конце концов


HERMAN HELMHOLZ1 (1821-1894)


1. Herman Helmholtz is celebrated2 for his contributions to physiology and theoretical physics. A delicate child, Helmholtz early displayed a passion for understanding things, but developed slowly, and had no marked early talent for mathematics. Although he wished to study physics, he was persuaded by his father to take up the study of medicine, entering the Medical In­stitute at Berlin in 1838.

2. His researches into physiological optics began about 1850 the discovery of the ophthalmoscope3 (1851), followed by investigation into colour, including the problem of colour-blind­ness.4 He also made fundamental contribution to the under-of the structure and mechanism of the human eye.

3. Helmholtz's first, and most celebrated paper in theoretical article on the conservation of force. In this paper he proved the conservation of total energy of a system of particles which were interacting through5 central forces depending only on the masses and separations of the particles. Other important work in theoretical physics included the famous paper on vortex mo­tion6 (1858), and the application of the principle of least action to electrodynamical problems.

4. Helmholtz was undoubtedly the most versatile7 of nine­teenth-century scientists. From 1871 onwards he was perhaps more famous as a theoretical physicist than as a physiologist. But it seems probable that apart from his work on the conservation of energy he will ultimately8 be remembered more for his epoch-making researches in physiological optics and acoustics in which his talents as physiologist, physicist, mathematician and experi­mentalist of genius were most vividly displayed.



V. Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложе­ния, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный во­прос:


For what researches will Helmholtz be remembered?

1. ... for his celebrated paper in theoretical physics.

2. ... for his epoch-making researches in physiological optics and acoustics.

3. ... for his paper on vortex motion.

ВАРИАНТ 2


I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.


а) 1. Today scientists are still looking for the substance as a source of energy.

2. The Mendeleyev system has served for almost 100 years as a key to discovering new elements.

б) 1. Synthetic rubber products were developed between 1914 and the 1930s.

2. The intensity of this process is influenced by many factors.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Molecular crystals are solids constructed of molecules held together by relatively weak forces.

2. A body moving with a certain velocity carries within itself the kinetic energy of motion.

3. While absorbing the energy of cosmic rays the upper atmosphere becomes radioactive.

4. Unless properly treated the metal must not be applied for space technology.


III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Energy can exist in many forms and each form can be transformed into the other.


2. The computers should become an integral part of the organization of industrial processes of all types.

3. These metal parts had to be subjected to X-rays examination.

4. The chemists may use the reactor to analyze various substances for their exact composition.


IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.


Пояснения к тексту


  1. honorary boardдоска славы, почета

  2. in compiling this – собирая все материалы и факты

  3. some sixty in all — всего около шестидесяти

  4. verbally — устно


D.I. MENDELEYEV (1834-1907)


1. A Russian name appeared in 1964 on the honorary board of science at Bridgeport University, USA: Mendeleyev was added to the list of the greatest geniuses - Euclid, Archimedes, Coperni­cus, Galilei, Newton and Lavoisier. D.I. Mendeleyev, the explorer of nature, is the greatest chemist of the world. The Mendeleyev system has served for almost 100 years as a key to elements and it has retained its key capacity until now.

2. D.I. Mendeleyev was the fourteenth, and last child of the Director of the Gymnasium at Tobolsk. At 16 he was taken by mother to St. Petersburg to seek higher education. He entered Pedagogical Institute where his father has also studied. In 1856 he took a degree in chemistry and in 1859 he was sent abroad for two years for further training. He returned to St. Petersburg in 1861 as Professor of Chemistry.

3. In 1868 Mendeleyev began to write a great textbook of chemistry, known in its English translation as the “Principles of Chemistry”. In compiling this,2 he tried to find some system of classifying the elements – some sixty in all3 then known – whose properties he was describing. This led him to formulate the Periodic Law, which earned him lasting international fame. He presented it verbally4 to the Russian Chemical Society in October 8 and published it in February 1869.


4. In this paper he set out clearly his discovery that if the elements are arranged in order of their atomic weights, chemically related elements appear at regular intervals. The greatness of Mendeleyev's achievement lies in the fact that he had discovered a generalization that not only unified an enormous amount of ex­iting information but pointed the way to further progress.


V. Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:


What can you say about the greatness of Mendeleyev's discovery?

1. The greatness of Mendeleyev's achievement lies in the fact 'hat his Periodic Table pointed the way to further progress in Chemistry.

2. Mendeleyev had discovered several new elements.

3. Mendeleyev created the system of classifying chemical ele­ments.


ВАРИАНТ 3


I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.


а) 1. The reactor is fast becoming a major source of heat and electricity.

2. Scientists have found ways of measuring the sizes and positions of bodies in the Universe.

б) 1. Elements are transformed into other elements both by man and by nature.

2. The launching of Sputnik 1 was followed by many achievements in science and engineering.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. These reactions convert hydrogen into helium, giving off a great amount of light and heat.

2. The formula deduced by Einstein is perhaps the most well-known equation in the world.

3. Soils containing too much sand or clay are of less value in agriculture.

4. Plastics articles are often difficult to repair if broken.


III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Laser light can be used to transmit power of various types.

2. The application of digital (цифровой) computers should include all forms of automatic control in science and industry.

3. These new materials had to withstand much higher temperatures than metals.

4. Ethylene gas may be obtained by cracking petroleum.


IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.


Пояснения к тексту


  1. Meitner — Майтнер

  2. doctorate — докторская степень

  3. then available — доступные в то время

  4. illustrious – прославленный, известный

  5. productive – плодотворный


LISE MEITNER1 (1878-1968)


1. In 1938, an Austrian physicist named Lise Meitner an­nounced the splitting of the atom in the laboratory. That an­nouncement confirmed once again the beginning of the Atomic Age. At that time Lise Meitner was one of the few persons in the world who had a thorough understanding of atomic energy and the uses which could be made of this great power.

2. Lise Meitner, the daughter of a lawyer, was born in Vienna on the 17th of November 1878. She grew interested in science when she read of the Curies' discovery of radium. The example of Marie Curie showed that a woman was able to achieve something in science. Lise Meitner became the first woman in the history of the University of Vienna who earned her doctorate2 in physics.


3. In 1906 she went to the University of Berlin to continue her studies by attending the theoretical lectures of Max Planck and by doing experimental work. Then she began her research in the new field of radioactivity. She focused her attention on the behaviour of beta radiation from radioactive elements, experimenting with the primitive methods then available3 for measuring and analysing radioactivity. Meitner's work in the 1920s and early 1930s empha­sized the physical aspects of radioactivity.

4. In 1938 she left Germany for Sweden. Lise Meitner declined to work on the development of the atom bomb remaining in Swe­den throughout the war. She was concerned with the properties of new radioactive isotopes, produced by the cyclotron. Her career was illustrious4 and productive5 (she published more than 135 sci­entific papers), but throughout her life she remained a shy person, with a deep interest in music. Her devotion to science had been total. She never married. In 1960 she moved to Cambridge, Eng­land, where she died in 1968.


V. Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложе­ния, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный во­прос.


Why can we say that Meitner's career was illustrious and pro­ductive?

1. ... because she was concerned with the study of thermal conductivity in non-homogeneous bodies.

2. ... because she was measuring and analysing radioactivity.

3. ... because she published more than 135 scientific papers.


ВАРИАНТ 4


I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.


а) 1. Quantum mechanics has greatly influenced the nuclear theory.

2. The problem of the structure of matter is constantly occupying the mind of many scientists.

б) 1. Today many polymeric materials are produced on a massive scale.

2. Many compounds can be decomposed when they are acted upon by different forms of energy.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Natural rubber is a thermoplastic material that becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.

2. Matter composed of any chemical combination of elements is called a compound.

3. The smallest particle having all the characteristics of an element is called an atom.

4. While bombarding the upper layers of the atmosphere, cosmic rays reach the surface of the earth.


III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Heat can be divided into three different types.

2. A great number of plastics should find their applications in the electrical industry.

3. Chemical means had to be used for the separation of compounds into their elements.

4. The existence of an X-ray laser in the future may be possible.


IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.


Пояснения к тексту


  1. Raman Раман

  2. pre-eminent — выдающийся, превосходящий других

  3. the Civil Service — государственная служба

  4. to appoint to a position - назначить на должность

  5. to testify to — свидетельствовать о
  6. to occupy the chair — возглавлять кафедру, заведо­вать кафедрой


  7. broughtзд. привлек

  8. to emergeзд. проявить себя


СH. V. RAMAN1 (I888-1970)


  1. Raman was an Indian physicist, pre-eminent2 in molecular spectroscopy and acoustics. He created the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1934 and was its president until his death in 1970. He was justly considered the father of Indian science and the Indian Government honoured him with the first of its National Profes­sorships. In 1957 he became an International Lenin Peace Prize Winner.

  2. The son of a teacher and lecturer, Raman entered the Col­lege in Madras in 1903 and achieved the highest distinctions in the examinations for scientific degrees. As scientific research was at this time almost completely neglected in India, he then entered the Civil Service3 and was appointed to a position4 in the Finance Department in 1907. He retained this employment for ten years, mostly in Calcutta. When he was eighteen years old he published his first original optical research in the "Philosophical Magazine". He continued scientific work in his spare time: some thirty papers testified to5 his ability and energy and helped to make his name familiar to scientists in Europe and America.

  3. In 1917 Raman was offered the professorship of physics at the Calcutta University. He occupied the chair6 from 1917 to 1933. Raman brought7 to Calcutta many talented young Indians to un­dertake research into optical phenomena, acoustics and other branches of physics.

4. During the years in Calcutta Raman emerged8 as a truly international figure. In 1930 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (for his work on the scattering of light and for the discov­ery of the effect named after him). Raman was honoured by uni­versities and scientific institutions in the Soviet Union, Europe and America as well as in his own country.



V. Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложе­ния, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный во­прос:


Why was Raman honoured by many universities and scientific institutions of different countries?

1. ... because he was awarded the Nobel Prize.

2. ... because he brought to Calcutta many young talented In­dians.

3. ... because of his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of an effect named after him.


ВАРИАНТ 5


I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.


а) 1. Astronomers have measured the exact length of the day.

2. Astronomers find that the day increasing by 0,002 seconds each century.

б) 1. The chemical properties of an element are determined by the orbiting electrons.

2. As a rule one great discovery is generally followed by numerous others.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. The cloud chamber (камера Вильсона) is one of the devices used to detect the presence of radioactivity.

2. Matter consists of one or a number of basic elements occurring in nature.

3. One can use several modern devices while detecting and measuring radioactivity.

4. When heated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases in volume.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.



1. We can think of heat as a special from of kinetic energy.

2. A computer should solve complicated problems many millions of times fester than a mathematician.

3. New types of plastics had to be obtained for space technology.

4. To measure the vast distances between different planets scientists have to use special instruments.


IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.


Пояснения к тексту


  1. Powell – Пауэлл


следующая страница >>