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Edited by


Sharon J. Kemmerer

STEP T h e G r a n d E x p e r i e n c e

SP 939

U.S. Department of Commerce • Technology Administration • National Institute of Standards and Technology

STEP T h e G r a n d E x p e r i e n c e

U.S. Department of Commerce

William M. Daley

Technology Administration

Gary R. Bachula, Under Secretary for Technology

National Institute of Standards and Technology

Raymond G. Kammer, Director

Edited by

Sharon J. Kemmerer

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory

National Institute of Standards and Technology

Gaithersburg, MD 20899-0001

July 1999

NIST Special Publication 939

National Institute of Standards

and Technology

Special Publication 939

Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

Spec. Publ. 939

187 pages (July 1999)

CODEN: NSPUE2

U.S. Government Printing Office

Washington: 1999

For sale by the Superintendent

of Documents

U.S. Government Printing Office

Washington, DC 20402

iii

DEDICATION

Because this Product Data Exchange effort has already crossed into its third decade, the United States

standardization participants have felt the unfortunate loss of their colleagues. Many of these individuals were still

active contributors to the national and international efforts when they died. This dedication serves as a small token

of our appreciation for their professional contributions to the national and international product data exchange

standardization efforts, and for their personal contributions in touching our lives.


Robert Colsher

(IGES)


William Conroy

(IPO Chair, NIPDE General Manager, US TAG Chair)

Bert Gibbons

(Electrical/Electronics)

Dick Justice

(US TAG Chair)

Bryan Martin

(Validation)

Richard Winfrey

(Presentation)

Timothy Wise

Liaison for TC172/SC1 and TC184/SC4/WG3/T9

iv

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

1.1 BACKGROUND----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

1.2 DOCUMENT APPROACH ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2

1.3 DOCUMENT CONTENT-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

1.4 AUDIENCE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

1.5 DISCLAIMER FOR THIS DOCUMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

CHAPTER 2 IN THE BEGINNING… THERE WAS PRODUCT DATA EXCHANGE ------------------------- 7

2.1 EVOLUTION OF PRODUCT INFORMATION SHARING ------------------------------------------------------------------ 7

2.2 EARLY CONTRIBUTING EFFORTS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

2.3 OTHER INTERNATIONAL PLAYERS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------14


2.4 THE PDES INITIATION EFFORT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15

2.5 HOW DID ELECTRICAL CONTENT FIND ITS WAY INTO STEP? ---------------------------------------------------16

2.6 LEGACY TO STEP -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19

2.7 CONCLUSION -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20

CHAPTER 3 STEP DEVELOPMENT -- CYCLES OF CONSENSUS-----------------------------------------------23

3.1 INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23

3.2 THE BEGINNING OF STEP ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23

3.3 THE PDES INITIATION EFFORT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------25

3.4 THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT INFORMATION MODEL (IPIM) -----------------------------------------------------28

3.5 CONTEXT DRIVEN INTEGRATED MODELS (CDIMS) ------------------------------------------------------------31

3.6 THE INTEGRATION MODELS OF THE PDES INTEGRATION TASK GROUP----------------------------------------31

3.7 ISO RECOGNIZES THE CONCEPT OF APPLICATION PROTOCOLS (APS)--------------------------------------------33

3.8 SO CAN WE BUILD A STEP PLANNING MODEL? -------------------------------------------------------------------34

3.9 THE GENERIC PRODUCT DATA MODEL (GPDM) -----------------------------------------------------------------35

3.10 THE COMICAL, THE TECHNICAL, AND THE INSPIRED----------------------------------------------------------37

3.11 COUNT DOWN TO BLAST OFF… THE INITIAL RELEASE OF ISO 10303 ------------------------------------------41

3.12 NO TIME TO REST AFTER INTIAL RELEASE --------------------------------------------------------------43


3.13 CONCLUSION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45

CHAPTER 4 THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF STEP---------------------------------------------------------------------47

4.1 CHALLENGES FOR STEP ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------47

4.2 COMPONENTS OF ISO 10303 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------48

4.3 STEP METHODOLOGY--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------54

4.4 ARCHITECTURAL ISSUES FACING STEP--------------------------------------------------------------------57

4.5 CONCLUSION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------58

CHAPTER 5 MODELING – A WAY TO PRESENT PRODUCT DATA REQUIREMENTS------------------61

5.1 THE ROLE OF AN INFORMATION MODEL FOR DATA SHARING----------------------------------------------------61

5.2 ROBUST MODELING IS CRUCIAL TO STEP-----------------------------------------------------------------------61

5.3 MODELING ALTERNATIVES-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61

5.4 MODELING INFORMATION -- WHAT'S NEEDED---------------------------------------------------------------------65

5.5 WHY DID EXPRESS COME INTO EXISTENCE? ---------------------------------------------------------------------65

5.6 MODELING AND STEP ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------66

5.7 CONTRIBUTIONS OF STEP TO MODELING -------------------------------------------------------------------------66

5.8 IN PRACTICE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67


5.9 EXPRESS – A COMPUTER-INTERPRETABLE LANGUAGE-----------------------------------------------68

vi

5.10 EXPRESS AND VALIDATION -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------69

5.11 WHAT CAN BE GENERATED? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------72

5.12 MINOR ANNOYANCES--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73

5.13 CONCLUSION-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73

CHAPTER 6 SHARING VERSUS EXCHANGING DATA------------------------------------------------------------75

6.1 INTRODUCTION---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75

6.2 DATA EXCHANGE IN THE CONTEXT OF STEP ----------------------------------------------------------------------75

6.3 DATA SHARING IN THE CONTEXT OF STEP-------------------------------------------------------------------------76

6.4 SHARING DATA & EXCHANGING DATA COMPARED --------------------------------------------------------------77

6.5 STEP IMPLEMENTATION LEVELS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77

6.6 SDAI EVOLUTION -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78

6.7 SDAI --INTENDED PURPOSE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------79

6.8 SDAI AND ITS FAMILY OF STANDARDS------------------------------------------------------------------------------80

6.9 SDAI’S COMPATIBILITY WITH EXPRESS--------------------------------------------------------------------------80

6.10 SDAI SUPPORT FOR APPLICATION PROTOCOLS-------------------------------------------------------------------82


6.11 CONTRASTING ISO 10303-21 WITH ISO 10303-22 ---------------------------------------------------------------82

6.12 IMPLEMENTATION CLASSES IN ISO 10303-22---------------------------------------------------------------------82

6.13 TESTING FOR SDAI----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------83

6.14 CONCLUSION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------83

CHAPTER 7 THE USER PERSPECTIVE---------------------------------------------------------------------------------85

7.1 BACKGROUND ON APPLICATION PROTOCOLS ----------------------------------------------------------------------85

7.2 PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES OF APPLICATION PROTOCOLS---------------------------------------------------------85

7.3 COMPONENTS OF AN APPLICATION PROTOCOL-----------------------------------------------------------------86

7.4 DEVELOPING AN APPLICATION PROTOCOL -------------------------------------------------------------------------91

7.5 PLANNING AND MANAGING AP PROJECTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------93

7.6 CONCLUSION-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------94

CHAPTER 8 CONFORMANCE AND INTEROPERABILITY TESTING-----------------------------------------97

8.1 INTRODUCTION---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------97

8.2 TESTING ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98

8.3 CONFORMANCE TESTING VERSUS INTEROPERABILITY TESTING -------------------------------------------------99

8.4 DEVELOPING CONFORMANCE TESTING METHODOLOGIES FOR ISO 10303 ------------------------------------ 101


8.5 STEP CONFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 103

8.6 CONFORMANCE TESTING STEP IMPLEMENTATIONS ------------------------------------------------------------ 103

8.7 INTEROPERABILTY TESTING OF ISO 10303 IMPLEMENTATIONS ----------------------------------------------- 104

8.8 FORMAL CERTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 109

8.9 TESTING BENEFITS AND COSTS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 110

8.10 CONCLUSION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 111

CHAPTER 9 MANAGING THE PROCESS TO ACHIEVE THE PRODUCT -- STANDARDS------------- 113

9.1 OUR MEANS TO AN END -- ORGANIZING AND OPERATING SC4---------------------------------- 113

9.2 EXPLOITATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY---------------------------------------------------- 121

9.3 LEVERAGING HUMAN RESOURCES------------------------------------------------------------------------ 126

9.4 CONCLUSION------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 127

CHAPTER 10 THE FUTURE OF STEP --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 129

10.1 STEP DEVELOPMENT------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 129

10.2 DATA SHARING--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 132

10.3 EXPRESS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 133

10.4 UPWARD COMPATIBILITY------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 134

10.5 INTEROPERABILITY -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 134

10.6 CHANGE MANAGEMENT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 135

vii

10.7 ARCHIVAL REQUIREMENTS IMPACTING STEP--------------------------------------------------------- 136

10.8 ENGINEERING ANALYSIS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 137

10.9 DESIGN INTENT AND PARAMETRICS---------------------------------------------------------------------- 138

10.10 STANDARD PARTS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 139

10. 11 ELECTRONICS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 139

10.12 SUPPLY CHAIN---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 141

10.13 PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 142

10.14 RAPID PROTOTYPING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 143

10.15 STEP PRODUCT SUPPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 144

10.16 INTERFACING WITH OTHER GROUPS AND STANDARDS-------------------------------------------- 145

10.17 CONCLUSION------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 149

CHAPTER 11 EPILOGUE-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A ACRONYMS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 155

APPENDIX B GLOSSARY OF TERMS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 159


APPENDIX C REFERENCES---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 165

APPENDIX D ABOUT THE AUTHORS… ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 171

BIBLIOGRAPHY-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 177

viii

1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

This document is the result of a comprehensive effort by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

to document the development of STEP--Standard for the Exchange of Product model data. More than two dozen

individuals inside and outside of NIST actively contributed to this document. Dr. Richard Jackson, Director of the

Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory, initiated this effort, making the following remarks as an introduction to the

task:

"I think it's time for us to take stock of what has transpired with STEP. After more than a decade

of technical and standards committee work in product data exchange, it is time for us to produce a

definitive work on this topic. This work should include clear, concise, illuminating discussions of

the technical issues, the solutions and the standards..." [10/1996]

Although the text will focus on the role of NIST in the STEP effort, it will also describe the role and efforts of the

many types of partners that have worked with NIST to make STEP happen. In addition, this document will examine

a possible path for NIST to take in determining its future involvement with STEP or other similar standards.

NIST’s effort in product data exchange standardization has helped to expand its role in physical measurements and

calibrations into the arena of:



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